AC Grid Emulations for Advanced Testing of Grid-Connected Converters - An Overview

Ke Ma, Jiashi Wang, Xu Cai, Frede Blaabjerg

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
77 Downloads (Pure)


High penetration of distributed generations and active loads have enabled the power electronics converter to become a vital component in the modern power grid system, and the broad employment of grid-connected converters at various power levels is making the grid impedance and characteristics complicated. Consequently, in order to validate more advanced features such as the reliability and stability performances of the grid-connected converters, it is becoming an emerging need to emulate the grid behaviors from more aspects. This article serves to foster and investigate the state-of-the-art techniques in the field of ac grid emulation from the perspective of multiple spatial-scales and multiple time-scales. Four major concepts used for grid emulation with featured principles, including concept I (analog simulation with under-scaled components), concept II (grid characteristics in the real-time simulator), concept III (grid characteristics in the converters structure), and concept IV (grid characteristics in the converters controller), are summarized, respectively, in this article. The practical implementation regarding to the circuit topology and the power supply for the grid emulation system are also discussed. Finally, the future trends and conclusions in the field of ac grid emulation are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9147063
JournalI E E E Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)1626-1645
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Grid characteristics
  • grid emulation
  • grid-connected converters
  • harmonic
  • impedance
  • testing


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