Accelerated Randomized Methods for Receiver Design in Extra-Large Scale MIMO Arrays

Victor Croisfelt Rodrigues, Abolfazl Amiri, Taufik Abrão, Elisabeth De Carvalho, Petar Popovski

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Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (M-MIMO) features a capability for spatial multiplexing of large number of users. This number becomes even more extreme in extra-large (XL-MIMO), a variant of M-MIMO where the antenna array is of very large size. Yet, the problem of signal processing complexity in M-MIMO is further exacerbated by the XL size of the array. The basic processing problem boils down to a sparse system of linear equations that can be addressed by the randomized Kaczmarz (RK) algorithm. This algorithm has recently been applied to devise low-complexity M-MIMO receivers; however, it is limited by the fact that certain configurations of the linear equations may significantly deteriorate the performance of the RK algorithm. In this article, we embrace the interest in accelerated RK algorithms and introduce three new RK-based low-complexity receiver designs. In our experiments, our methods are not only able to overcome the previous scheme, but they are more robust against inter-user interference (IUI) and sparse channel matrices arising in the XL-MIMO regime. In addition, we show that the RK-based schemes use a mechanism similar to that used by successive interference cancellation (SIC) receivers to approximate the regularized zero-forcing (RZF) scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9437708
JournalI E E E Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)6788-6799
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

This work was supported in part by the National Council for Scientific
and Technological Development (CNPq) of Brazil, Grant 310681/2019-7, in
part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior,
Brazil (CAPES), Financial Code 001 (88887.461434/2019-00), in part by the
CONFAP-ERC Agreement H2020, Brazil, and in part by the Danish Council
for Independent Research DFF-701700271.


  • Antenna arrays
  • Approximation algorithms
  • Complexity theory
  • MIMO communication
  • Mathematical model
  • Receivers
  • Signal processing algorithms
  • massive MIMO; extra-large scale massive MIMO; randomized Kaczmarz algorithm; receiver design


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