Acquisition and usage of robotic surgical data for machine learning analysis

Nasseh Hashemi*, Morten Bo Søndergaard Svendsen, Flemming Bjerrum, Sten Rasmussen, Martin G. Tolsgaard, Mikkel Lønborg Friis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Background: The increasing use of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) has led to the need for new methods of assessing whether new surgeons are qualified to perform RAS, without the resource-demanding process of having expert surgeons do the assessment. Computer-based automation and artificial intelligence (AI) are seen as promising alternatives to expert-based surgical assessment. However, no standard protocols or methods for preparing data and implementing AI are available for clinicians. This may be among the reasons for the impediment to the use of AI in the clinical setting. Method: We tested our method on porcine models with both the da Vinci Si and the da Vinci Xi. We sought to capture raw video data from the surgical robots and 3D movement data from the surgeons and prepared the data for the use in AI by a structured guide to acquire and prepare video data using the following steps: ‘Capturing image data from the surgical robot’, ‘Extracting event data’, ‘Capturing movement data of the surgeon’, ‘Annotation of image data’. Results: 15 participant (11 novices and 4 experienced) performed 10 different intraabdominal RAS procedures. Using this method we captured 188 videos (94 from the surgical robot, and 94 corresponding movement videos of the surgeons’ arms and hands). Event data, movement data, and labels were extracted from the raw material and prepared for use in AI. Conclusion: With our described methods, we could collect, prepare, and annotate images, events, and motion data from surgical robotic systems in preparation for its use in AI.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSurgical Endoscopy
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)6588-6601
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

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© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Data acquisition
  • Robotic surgery


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