The adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is suboptimal. However, new OADs have been marketed within the last 10 years. As these new drugs differ in mechanism of action, treatment complexity, and side effects, they may influence adherence. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the adherence to newer second-line OADs, defined as drugs marketed in 2012–2022, among people with T2D. A systematic review was performed in CINAHL, Cochrane Trials, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Articles were included if they were original research of adherence to newer second-line OADs and reported objective adherence quantification. The quality of the articles was assessed using JBI's critical appraisal tools. The overall findings were reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and summarized in a narrative synthesis. All seven included articles were European retrospective cohort studies investigating alogliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and unspecified types of SGLT2i. Treatment discontinuation and medication possession ratio (MPR) were the most frequently reported adherence quantification measures. Within the first 12 months of treatment, 29%–44% of subjects on SGLT2i discontinued the treatment. In terms of MPR, 61.7%–94.9% of subjects on either alogliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin or an unspecified SGLT2i were adherent. The two investigated adherence quantification measures, treatment discontinuation and MPR, suggest that adherence to the newer second-line OADs may be better than that of older OADs. However, a study directly comparing older and newer OADs should be done to verify this.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1185
JournalPharmacology Research & Perspectives
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

© 2024 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • adherence
  • oral antidiabetic drug
  • review
  • type 2 diabetes


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