Due to the decrease in cost, size and weight, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more and more popular for general-purpose civil and commercial applications. Provision of communication services to UAVs both for user data and control messaging by using off-the-shelf terrestrial cellular deployments introduces several technical challenges. In this paper, an approach to the air-to-ground channel characterization for low-height UAVs based on an extensive measurement campaign is proposed, giving special attention to the comparison of the results when a typical directional antenna for network deployments is used and when a quasi-omnidirectional one is considered. Channel characteristics like path loss, shadow fading, root mean square delay and Doppler frequency spreads and the K-factor are statistically characterized for different suburban scenarios.
- Aircraft communication
- communications channels
- time-varying channels
- unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)