An effective algorithm for maed problems with a new reliability model at the microgrid

Amirreza Naderipour, Akhtar Kalam*, Zulkurnain Abdul-Malek, Iraj Faraji Davoudkhani, Mohd Wazir Bin Mustafa, Josep M. Guerrero

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This paper proposes a new framework for multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) in which the cost associated with the reliability consideration is taken into account together with the common operational and emission costs using expected energy not supplied (EENS) index. To improve the reliability level, the spinning reserve capacity is considered in the model as well. Furthermore, the MAED optimization problem and non-smooth cost functions are taken into account as well as other technical limitations such as tie-line capacity restriction, ramp rate limits, and prohibited operating zones at the microgrid. Considering all the above practical issues increases the complexity in terms of optimization, which, in turn, necessitates the use of a powerful optimization tool. A new successful algorithm inspired by phasor theory in mathematics, called phasor particle swarm optimization (PPSO), is used in this paper to address this problem. In PPSO, the particles’ update rules are driven by phase angles to essentially ensure a spread of variants across the population so that exploitation and exploration can be balanced. The optimal results obtained via simulations confirmed the capability of the proposed PPSO algorithm to find suitable optimal solutions for the proposed model.
Original languageEnglish
Article number257
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Microgrid
  • Multi-area economic dispatch (MAED)
  • Phasor particle swarm optimization (PPSO)
  • Reliability-based MAED
  • Reserve constraints
  • Total pollutant emissions


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