In this paper, an efficient bi-level framework is proposed to enhance the resilience of microgrids (MGs) against islanding due to low probability-high impact events by incorporating battery swapping stations (BSSs). In the emergency condition, MG solves the upper-level of the proposed model to report the desired energy transaction including surplus energy and unsupplied loads during the islanding period to the BSSs coordinator. The lower-level problem will be solved with an iterative algorithm by BSSs coordinator to report different plans of energy transactions and their prices to the MG during the emergency period. The price of each energy transaction plan is determined based on a bonus mechanism. Finally, MG will choose the best plan of energy trading considering a new proposed perspective of resilience improvement. Furthermore, a new formulation for BSS operation with fewer variables in comparison to the previous works is proposed in this paper. Simulations are carried out on an MG with two BSSs to verify the proposed model.
- Battery swapping station
- low probability-high impact events