An empirical analysis of domestic electricity load profiles: Who consumes how much and when?

Gianluca Trotta

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


With the increased share of renewables in power generation, end users play a key role in keeping the demand at levels that better match variable supply, maintaining lower overall system costs, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. To increase the potential for demand-side flexibility, a deeper understanding of domestic electricity load profiles is needed. Informed by customer grouping based on similar consumption patterns and drivers, targeted interventions can be better designed to time-shift peak loads and reduce overall demand. Thus, the objectives of this study are (i) to segment households in relation to their electricity load patterns using K-means clustering and (ii) to investigate household characteristics that have an influence on electricity load patterns by employing multinomial probit regression. This study uses hourly electricity consumption for 2017, combined with population-based register data for a large sample of Danish households. The results indicate that four distinct Danish household groups are characterized by different timing and magnitudes of electricity consumption, which are influenced by specific sociodemographics and dwelling characteristics. Similarities between the groups emerge with respect to the evening peak consumption, seasonal variation in electricity demand, and weekend morning demand ramp-up. Challenges and opportunities for domestic load profiling in the power industry and policymaking are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number115399
JournalApplied Energy
Issue number1 October
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jun 2020


  • Domestic electricity load profiles
  • Hourly electricity consumption
  • Household segmentation
  • Cluster analysis
  • Multinomial probit regression
  • Denmark


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