An ocean of concepts - Why choosing between ecosystem-based management, ecosystem-based approach and ecosystem approach makes a difference

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Abstract

The need for management approaches based on ecosystem perspectives that thoroughly incorporate ecosystem considerations into marine planning has become increasingly urgent. In response, concepts such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), ecosystem-based approach (EBA) and ecosystem approach (EA) are increasingly being applied in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP). The purpose of this article is to clarify potential differences and similarities between the three concepts and potential consequences of choosing one over the others. From a questionnaire and literature analysis, the findings showed vast disagreements on how the concepts are related, however the main perception is that the concepts overlap. Respondents agreed that a lack of clear definitions and understandings of the three concepts causes confusion and expect negative consequences for planning outcomes. Eleven principles for how the concepts are ideally performed were found, including; acknowledge interlinkages, see humans as a part of the ecosystem and consider cumulative impacts. While a complete
overlap between EBM and EA principles were found, the weighting of each principle was different for each concept. Differences were also found in objectives of the concepts, where definitions of EBM were the only ones to include the objective of co-existence and definitions of EBA the only to include objectives of impact management and good environmental status. As this could have consequences in planning processes and thus in the outcomes, it
is crucial that MSP practitioners and stakeholders are aware of different perceptions so that choosing between concepts does not lead to less ambitious or inadequate outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103541
JournalMarine Policy
ISSN0308-597X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2019

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ecosystem approach
ecosystem management
oceans
ecosystems
ecosystem
planning
ocean
management
spatial planning
Ecosystem-based management
Ecosystem approach
Ecosystem
planning process
stakeholders
coexistence
stakeholder
weighting
questionnaires
cause
questionnaire

Keywords

  • Ecosystem approach
  • Ecosystem-based approach
  • Ecosystem-based management
  • Marine spatial planning

Cite this

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abstract = "The need for management approaches based on ecosystem perspectives that thoroughly incorporate ecosystem considerations into marine planning has become increasingly urgent. In response, concepts such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), ecosystem-based approach (EBA) and ecosystem approach (EA) are increasingly being applied in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP). The purpose of this article is to clarify potential differences and similarities between the three concepts and potential consequences of choosing one over the others. From a questionnaire and literature analysis, the findings showed vast disagreements on how the concepts are related, however the main perception is that the concepts overlap. Respondents agreed that a lack of clear definitions and understandings of the three concepts causes confusion and expect negative consequences for planning outcomes. Eleven principles for how the concepts are ideally performed were found, including; acknowledge interlinkages, see humans as a part of the ecosystem and consider cumulative impacts. While a completeoverlap between EBM and EA principles were found, the weighting of each principle was different for each concept. Differences were also found in objectives of the concepts, where definitions of EBM were the only ones to include the objective of co-existence and definitions of EBA the only to include objectives of impact management and good environmental status. As this could have consequences in planning processes and thus in the outcomes, itis crucial that MSP practitioners and stakeholders are aware of different perceptions so that choosing between concepts does not lead to less ambitious or inadequate outcomes.",
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