Angular Distribution of Cellular Signals for UAVs in Urban and Rural Scenarios

Tomasz Izydorczyk, Fernando Menezes Leitão Tavares, Gilberto Berardinelli, Madalina Cristina Bucur, Preben Elgaard Mogensen

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
84 Downloads (Pure)


Spatial channel characterization of a cellular Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Air-to-Ground (AG) communication link is a vital step to understand the potential of beam-forming in the take-off zone, when a UAV flies in the vicinity of other objects. In this paper, we evaluate the variation of mean Angle of Arrival (AoA) and Angular Spread (AS) with height based on the experimental measurements using live Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. The LTE signals are recorded at different heights from a ground level up to 40 m in rural and urban environments. Space-Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE) algorithm is used for the estimation of the angular parameters. Results show similar mean AoA at different heights, with less than 55 degrees deviation in urban environment and no more than 20 degrees change in rural scenarios. Observed AS is reduced to less than 30 degrees at increasing heights as the Line of Sight (LoS) propagation becomes dominant. However the comparison between urban and rural environments clearly indicates the presence of relevant multipath components in the urban scenarios even 20 m above the rooftops level.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)
Number of pages5
Publication date2019
Article number8740242
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-8127-5
ISBN (Electronic)978-88-907018-8-7
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventThe 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation - Krakow, Krakow, Poland
Duration: 31 Mar 20195 Apr 2019


ConferenceThe 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
Internet address
Series European Conference on Antenna and Propagation (EUCAP)


  • angular spread
  • LTE
  • measurements
  • UAV
  • Angular distribution
  • Antennas
  • Backpropagation
  • Maximum principle
  • Measurement
  • Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)
  • Urban planning
  • Vehicle to vehicle communications


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