Application of lactic acid bacteria in green biorefineries

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have extensive industrial applications as producers of lactic acid, as probiotics, as biocontrol agents and as biopreservatives. LAB play a large role in food fermentation and in silage processes, where crops such as grass, legumes, cereals or corn are fermented into high-moisture feed that is storable and can be used to feed cattle, sheep or other ruminants. LAB also have great applications within green biorefineries, with simultaneous production of protein-rich feed for monogastric animals, silage or feed pellets for ruminants and production of lactic acid or specific amino acids. In green biorefineries, fresh or ensiled wet biomass is mechanically fractionated into green juice and solid residues (press cake), where the plant juice, for example, can be used for production of lactic acid using LAB. In a process named ‘ENLAC’, recovery of protein and chlorophyll from silage by simultaneous lactic acid fermentation and enzyme hydrolysis has been developed. Furthermore, a process for protein recovery was recently developed by applying a specific LAB starter culture to green juice from freshly harvested crops. This paper focuses on reviewing LAB for their applications within biorefining of ‘green’ crops such as clover, alfalfa, grasses and other green plant materials.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFEMS Microbiology Letters
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


  • brown juice fermentation
  • green biorefinery
  • green juice fermentation
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • protein extraction
  • silage


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