Background: The Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) is a self-rating instrument developed as a time- and cost-saving alternative to quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of the study were to assess (a) the associations between PSQ scores and QST in women with persistent pelvic pain and in pain-free controls and (b) to what extent demographic variables and psychological distress influenced PSQ scores. Methods: Fifty-five healthy women and 37 women with persistent pelvic pain participated. All filled in the PSQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and had QST (heat, cold and pressure pain thresholds) performed on six locations on the body. Information on age, body mass index, smoking habits and pain duration were collected. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square regressions were used. Results: The patients scored significantly higher on PSQ than the controls. Significant multivariate correlations between pain thresholds and PSQ scores were found only in the patient group. In the patient group, the heat and cold pain thresholds correlated more strongly with PSQ scores than the pressure pain threshold. Conclusions: The PSQ score was significantly higher in pelvic pain patients, and correlations between QSTs and the PSQ were only found for patients. Significance: The PSQ reflects pain sensitivity in women with PPP and can be used as a non-invasive and painless way to assess this condition in clinical practice.