When designing human-system collaboration to assist in strenuous manual tasks we need to develop methods of communication between the system and the human. In this paper we are evaluating augmented reality (AR) technologies for displaying task-relevant information when the target is on a work surface for a typically standing work operation. In this case we are testing AR interfaces for displaying sub-surface positions. To do this we compare four types of AR interfaces, a head-mounted see-through display, a mounted see-through display, top-down surface projection and graphical overlays on a static monitor. We performed the experiment with 48 participants. Data analyses show significant difference between the AR interfaces in terms of task completion times and user satisfaction with the projection-based display being the fastest and most satisfying to the participants.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2019 : 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Paphos, Cyprus, September 2–6, 2019, Proceedings, Part II
EditorsDavid Lamas, Fernando Loizides, Lennart Nacke, Helen Petrie, Marco Winckler, Panayiotis Zaphiris
Number of pages19
PublisherSpringer Publishing Company
Publication date2019
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-29383-3
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-29384-0
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventINTERACT 2019: The 17th IFIP TC.13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Paphos, Cyprus
Duration: 2 Sep 20196 Sep 2019
Conference number: 17


ConferenceINTERACT 2019
Internet address
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science



  • Augmented reality
  • Usability testing

Cite this

Hald, K., Rehm, M., & Moeslund, T. B. (2019). Augmented Reality Technology for Displaying Close-Proximity Sub-Surface Positions. In D. Lamas, F. Loizides, L. Nacke, H. Petrie, M. Winckler, & P. Zaphiris (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2019: 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Paphos, Cyprus, September 2–6, 2019, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 641-659). Springer Publishing Company. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol.. 11747 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29384-0_38