Automated rainfall simulator for variable rainfall on urban green areas

Kristoffer Nielsen, Per Møldrup, Søren Liedtke Thorndahl, Jesper Ellerbæk Nielsen, Lene Bassø Duus, Søren Højmark Rasmussen, Mads Uggerby

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
92 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Rainfall simulators can enhance our understanding of the hydrologic processes affecting the total runoff to urban drainage systems. This knowledge can be used to improve urban drainage designs. In this study, a rainfall simulator is developed to simulate rainfall on urban green surfaces. The rainfall simulator is controlled by a microcomputer programmed to replicate the temporal variations in rainfall intensity of both historical and synthetic rainfall events with constant rainfall intensity on an area of 1 m2. The performance of the rainfall simulator is tested under laboratory conditions with regard to spatial uniformity of the rainfall, the kinetic energy of the raindrops, and the ability to replicate historical and synthetic rainfall events with temporally varying intensity. The rainfall simulator is applied in the field to evaluate its functionality under field conditions and the influence of wind on simulated rainfall. Finally, a field study is carried out on the relationship between runoff, soil volumetric water content, and surface slope. Performance and field tests show that the simulated rainfall has a uniform spatial distribution, whereas the kinetic energy of the raindrops is slightly higher than that of other comparable rainfall simulators. The rainfall simulator performs best in low wind speed conditions. The simulator performs well in replicating historical and synthetic rainfall events by matching both intensity variations and accumulated rainfall depth. The field study shows good correlation between rainfall, runoff, infiltration, soil water content, and surface slope.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHydrological Processes
Volume33
Issue number26
Pages (from-to)3364-3377
Number of pages14
ISSN0885-6087
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

FUNDING INFORMATION
This research was funded by the Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector, Innovation Fund Denmark, Aarhus Vand, EnviDan, and Aalborg University.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was funded by the Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector, Innovation Fund Denmark, Aarhus Vand, EnviDan, and Aalborg University.

DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
The data and scripts that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Keywords

  • Infiltration
  • Pervious surfaces
  • Rainfall–runoff
  • Rainfall simulator
  • Surface runoff
  • Urban drainage
  • Valve control
  • Variable rainfall
  • surface runoff
  • rainfall–runoff
  • rainfall simulator
  • variable rainfall
  • valve control
  • urban drainage
  • infiltration
  • pervious surfaces

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