Baseline layout and design of a 0.8 GW reference wind farm in the North Sea

Thomas Bak*, Angus Graham, Alla Sapronova, Mihai Florian, John Dalsgaard Sørensen, Torben Knudsen, Peng Hou, Zhe Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


A model of a reference wind farm is presented. It considers the wind and wave climatologies for a specific site and derives two different wind farm layouts. The layouts are then examined in terms of effective wake turbulence intensity for a given climatology, and a model for the influence on capital cost is proposed. An electrical design is suggested, and cable losses are calculated together with the energy yield. An operation and maintenance model is suggested, and the associated operating cost determined. The models are then combined in a term for levelized cost of energy allowing layouts to be compared. The data and models are available online and may serve as a baseline for benchmarking.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWind Energy
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1665-1683
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017


  • wind farm
  • Wind Energy
  • Cost of energy (COE)
  • Operation and Maintenance


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