In the present study, the protein-extracted grass residue (press cake) was processed through hydrothermal liquefaction under sub and supercritical temperatures (300, 350 and 400◦C) with and without using a potassium carbonate catalyst. The results revealed that bio-crude yield was influenced by both temperature and the catalyst. The catalyst was found to be effective at 350◦C (350 Cat) for enhancing the bio-crude yield, whereas supercritical state in both catalytic and noncatalytic conditions improved the quality of bio-crude with reasonable HHVs (33 to 36 MJ/kg). The thermal behaviour of bio-crude was analysed and higher volatile contents (more than 50% under the range of 350◦C) were found at supercritical conditions. The overall TOC values in the residual aqueous phase varied from 22 to 38 g/L. Higher carbon loss was noticed in the aqueous phase in supercritical conditions. Furthermore, GCMS analysis showed ketones, acids and ester, aromatics and hydrocarbon with negligible nitrogen-containing compounds in bio-crude. In conclusion, the catalytic conversion of grass residue under subcritical conditions (350 Cat) is favourable in terms of high bio-crude yield, however, supercritical conditions promote the deoxygenation of oxygen-containing compounds in biomass and thus improve HHVs of bio-crude.
- Aqueous phase
- Grass residue
- Sub-supercritical temperatures