Calculated Epithelial/Absorbed Power Density for Exposure from Antennas at 10–90 GHz: Intercomparison Study Using a Planar Skin Model

Kun Li*, Sachiko Kodera, Dragan Poljak, Yinliang Diao, Kensuke Sasaki, Anna Susnjara, Alexander Prokop, Kenji Taguchi, Jingtian Xi, Shuai Zhang, Ming Yao, Giulia Sacco, Maxim Zhadobov, Walid El Hajj, Akimasa Hirata

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


International organizations have collaborated to revise standards and guidelines for human protection from exposure to electromagnetic fields. In the frequency range of 6-300 GHz, the permissible spatially averaged epithelial/absorbed power density, which is primarily derived from thermal modeling, is considered as the basic restriction. However, for the averaging methods of the epithelial/absorbed power density inside human tissues, only a few groups have presented calculated results obtained using different exposure conditions and numerical methods. Because experimental validation is extremely difficult in this frequency range, this paper presents the first intercomparison study of the calculated epithelial/absorbed power density inside a human body model exposed to different frequency sources ranging from 10-90 GHz. This intercomparison aims to clarify the difference in the calculated results caused by different numerical electromagnetic methods in dosimetry analysis from 11 research groups using planar skin models. To reduce the comparison variances caused by various key parameters, computational conditions (e.g., the antenna type, dimensions, and dielectric properties of the skin models) were unified. The results indicate that the maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of the peak spatially averaged epithelial/absorbed power densities for one- and three-layer skin models are less than 17.49% and 17.39%, respectively, when using a dipole antenna as the exposure source. For the dipole array antenna, the corresponding maximum RSD increases to 32.49% and 42.55%, respectively. Under the considered exposure scenarios, the RSD in the spatially averaged epithelial/absorbed power densities decrease from 42.55% to 16.7% when the frequency is increased from 10-90 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
Pages (from-to)7420 - 7435
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Dosimetry modeling
  • electromagnetic field
  • epithelial/absorbed power density
  • millimeter wave exposure
  • skin model
  • standardization


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