18 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


Welfare conditionality, and the underlying understanding of unemployment because of lack of motivation, has been widely criticized. This article analyses if and how more co-created services can be a pathway to address some of these challenges. As Denmark currently is moving towards a softening of welfare conditionality for the vulnerable unemployed, and local authorities try to develop models ‘in between’ welfare conditionality and genuine user involvement, this constitute a good case for analysing this question. The analysis build on comprehensive ethnographic data from a four-year research- and innovation project in six Danish municipalities. The employment services in the project have tried to design new strategies involving clients in the development and implementation of services. Among other things, this includes developing integrated services, qualifying the meeting and the talk between front-line workers and clients, engaging the employer side and NGO’s outside the public services and promoting other measures to ensure real involvement of the citizens in the processes. The analysis lists some of the potentials and pitfalls in these innovative processes and reflects upon the feasibility of such new type of co-created services.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Social Policy
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)58-76
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

This article has been published in a revised form in Journal of Social Policy [http://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279420000665]. This version is published under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND licence. No commercial re-distribution or re-use allowed. Derivative works cannot be distributed. © Cambridge University Press.


  • co-creation
  • co-production
  • employment services
  • innovation
  • welfare conditionality


Dive into the research topics of 'Co-creation in an era of welfare conditionality: Lessons from Denmark'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this