Community microgrid planning in Lombok Island: an Indonesian case study

Wenfa Kang, Yajuan Guan*, Fransisco Danang Wijaya, Elias Kondorura Bawan, Adam Priyo Perdana, Juan C. Vasquez, Josep M. Guerrero

*Corresponding author for this work

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Rural electrification, diesel generator replacement, and resilient electrification systems against natural disasters are among the main targets for Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) in Indonesia to achieve a universally accessible, resilient, and environment-friendly electricity supply. Microgrids, therefore, become a popular and available way to achieve the aforementioned targets due to their flexibility and resiliency. This paper aims to provide a resilience-oriented planning strategy for community microgrids in Lombok Island, Indonesia. A mixed-integer linear program, implemented in the distributed energy resources customer adoption model (DER-CAM), is presented in this paper to find the optimal technology portfolio, placement, capacity, and optimal dispatch in a community microgrid. The multinode model is adopted for the planning, and hence, power flow constraints, N-1 contingency, and technology constraints are considered. The results show that the placement of photovoltaic (PV) arrays, battery energy storage systems (BESSs), and diesel generators (DGs) as backup sources in multi-node community microgrids lead to multiple benefits, including 100% rural electrification, over 25% cost savings, as well as over 22%, in particular CO2 emission reduction in multinode community microgrids.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1209875
JournalFrontiers in Energy Research
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Tech-IN project (Granted by Danish Ministry for foreign affairs and supported by Danida Fellowship Centre under grant #20-M06-AAU); .

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Kang, Guan, Danang Wijaya, Kondorura Bawan, Priyo Perdana, Vasquez and M. Guerrero.


  • CO reduction
  • community microgrid planning
  • distributed energy resources
  • resilience
  • rural electrification


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