Confined placental mosaicism: placental size and function evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging

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Abstract

Objectives: Evidence regarding placental function in pregnancies complicated by confined placental mosaicism (CPM) is conflicting. We aimed to compare placental function between CPM and non-CPM pregnancies prenatally and at birth. A secondary objective was to evaluate the relationship between placental function and chromosomal subtype of CPM. Methods: This was a retrospective study of pregnancies with CPM and control pregnancies delivered at a tertiary hospital in Denmark between 2014 and 2017. Placental volume and placental transverse relaxation time (T2*) were estimated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fetal weight and uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) were estimated on ultrasound and fetoplacental ratio was assessed on MRI and at birth. These estimates of placental function were adjusted for gestational age and compared between groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Within the group of CPM pregnancies, measures of placental function were compared between those at high risk (chromosome numbers 2, 3, 7, 13 and 16) and those at low risk (chromosome numbers 5, 18 and 45X). Results: A total of 90 pregnancies were included, of which 12 had CPM and 78 were controls. MRI and ultrasound examinations were performed at a median gestational age of 32.6 weeks (interquartile range, 24.7–35.3 weeks). On MRI assessment, CPM placentae were characterized by a lower placental T2* Z-score (P = 0.004), a lower fetoplacental ratio (P = 0.03) and a higher UtA-PI Z-score (P = 0.03), compared with non-CPM placentae. At birth, the fetoplacental ratio was significantly lower (P = 0.02) and placental weight Z-score was higher (P = 0.01) in CPM pregnancies compared with non-CPM pregnancies. High-risk CPM pregnancies showed a reduced placental T2* Z-score (P = 0.003), lower birth-weight Z-score (P = 0.041), earlier gestational age at delivery (P = 0.019) and higher UtA-PI Z-score (P = 0.028) compared with low-risk CPM pregnancies. Low-risk CPM pregnancies did not differ in any of these parameters from non-CPM pregnancies. Conclusions: CPM pregnancies are characterized by an enlarged and dysfunctional placenta. Placental function was highly related to the chromosomal type of CPM; placental dysfunction was seen predominantly in high-risk CPM pregnancies in which chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 13 or 16 were involved.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Volume62
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)130-136
Number of pages7
ISSN0960-7692
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Keywords

  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mosaicism
  • Parturition
  • Placenta/diagnostic imaging
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
  • Uterine Artery/diagnostic imaging
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • MRI
  • placental function
  • ultrasound
  • confined placental mosaicism
  • transverse relaxation time
  • placental volume

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