People with T1D and T2D have an increased risk of fractures than the general population, posing several significant pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic challenges. The pathophysiology is still not fully elucidated, but it is considered a combination of increased skeletal fragility and falls. Diagnostics issues exist, as regular and even newer scan methods underestimate the true incidence of osteoporosis and thus the fracture risk. Therefore, co-managing diabetes and osteoporosis by using top-line strategies is essential to preserve bone health and minimize the risk of falls. The therapeutic focus should start with lifestyle implementation and physical exercise interventions to reduce diabetic complications, strengthen bones, and improve postural control strategies. In addition, osteoporosis should be treated according to current guidelines by including bisphosphonates and antidiabetic drugs that support bone health. Finally, potentially modifiable risk factors for falls should be managed.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
- Skeletal fragility
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes