Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods

Rikke Poulsen, Lars Bo Ibsen, Benjaminn Nordahl Nielsen

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Soil plasticity index and thereby the liquid limit and plastic limit are often used in order to classify the soil type and determine soil properties. Generally, two methods, i.e. the Casagrande cup method and the fall cone method are adopted in order to determine the liquid limit of soil. In many countries, the fall cone is the preferred method to determine the liquid limit due to simplicity and comparative reproducibility. However, some researchers state that the liquid limit obtained by using the fall cone method cannot represent the soil plasticity particularly in soil with either very low or high plasticity. In addition, critics of the fall cone method indicate that the liquid limit can be determined by the fall cone even though it is not possible with the Casagrande cup which is why the soil should be noted as non-plastic. This paper presents how the Casagrande cup method is inapplicable for low plasticity silt due to e.g. problems with cutting the groove. The fall cone method is recommended because the results are more accurate and independent of individual execution. However, the fall cone apparatus also has an applicability limit where it is not possible to determine the liquid limit which is why the silt should be noted as non-plastic. This limit occurs when a clear water level is observed due to quick draining.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNGM 2012 Proceedings : Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting
Number of pages8
Volume1
PublisherDansk Geoteknisk Forening
Publication date2012
Pages199-206
ISBN (Print)978-87-89833-27-9
Publication statusPublished - 2012
EventThe Nordic Geotechnical Meeting - Copenhagen, Denmark
Duration: 9 May 201212 May 2012
Conference number: 16

Conference

ConferenceThe Nordic Geotechnical Meeting
Number16
CountryDenmark
CityCopenhagen
Period09/05/201212/05/2012

Fingerprint

Plasticity
Cones
Soils
Liquids
Silt
Water levels
Plastics

Bibliographical note

Proceedings published in 2 volumes

Keywords

  • Silts
  • Soil Classification
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Plasticity
  • Laboratory Equipment

Cite this

Poulsen, R., Ibsen, L. B., & Nielsen, B. N. (2012). Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods. In NGM 2012 Proceedings: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting (Vol. 1, pp. 199-206). Dansk Geoteknisk Forening.
Poulsen, Rikke ; Ibsen, Lars Bo ; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl. / Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods. NGM 2012 Proceedings: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting. Vol. 1 Dansk Geoteknisk Forening, 2012. pp. 199-206
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abstract = "Soil plasticity index and thereby the liquid limit and plastic limit are often used in order to classify the soil type and determine soil properties. Generally, two methods, i.e. the Casagrande cup method and the fall cone method are adopted in order to determine the liquid limit of soil. In many countries, the fall cone is the preferred method to determine the liquid limit due to simplicity and comparative reproducibility. However, some researchers state that the liquid limit obtained by using the fall cone method cannot represent the soil plasticity particularly in soil with either very low or high plasticity. In addition, critics of the fall cone method indicate that the liquid limit can be determined by the fall cone even though it is not possible with the Casagrande cup which is why the soil should be noted as non-plastic. This paper presents how the Casagrande cup method is inapplicable for low plasticity silt due to e.g. problems with cutting the groove. The fall cone method is recommended because the results are more accurate and independent of individual execution. However, the fall cone apparatus also has an applicability limit where it is not possible to determine the liquid limit which is why the silt should be noted as non-plastic. This limit occurs when a clear water level is observed due to quick draining.",
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Poulsen, R, Ibsen, LB & Nielsen, BN 2012, Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods. in NGM 2012 Proceedings: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting. vol. 1, Dansk Geoteknisk Forening, pp. 199-206, The Nordic Geotechnical Meeting , Copenhagen, Denmark, 09/05/2012.

Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods. / Poulsen, Rikke; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl.

NGM 2012 Proceedings: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting. Vol. 1 Dansk Geoteknisk Forening, 2012. p. 199-206.

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

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AU - Ibsen, Lars Bo

AU - Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

N1 - Proceedings published in 2 volumes

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Soil plasticity index and thereby the liquid limit and plastic limit are often used in order to classify the soil type and determine soil properties. Generally, two methods, i.e. the Casagrande cup method and the fall cone method are adopted in order to determine the liquid limit of soil. In many countries, the fall cone is the preferred method to determine the liquid limit due to simplicity and comparative reproducibility. However, some researchers state that the liquid limit obtained by using the fall cone method cannot represent the soil plasticity particularly in soil with either very low or high plasticity. In addition, critics of the fall cone method indicate that the liquid limit can be determined by the fall cone even though it is not possible with the Casagrande cup which is why the soil should be noted as non-plastic. This paper presents how the Casagrande cup method is inapplicable for low plasticity silt due to e.g. problems with cutting the groove. The fall cone method is recommended because the results are more accurate and independent of individual execution. However, the fall cone apparatus also has an applicability limit where it is not possible to determine the liquid limit which is why the silt should be noted as non-plastic. This limit occurs when a clear water level is observed due to quick draining.

AB - Soil plasticity index and thereby the liquid limit and plastic limit are often used in order to classify the soil type and determine soil properties. Generally, two methods, i.e. the Casagrande cup method and the fall cone method are adopted in order to determine the liquid limit of soil. In many countries, the fall cone is the preferred method to determine the liquid limit due to simplicity and comparative reproducibility. However, some researchers state that the liquid limit obtained by using the fall cone method cannot represent the soil plasticity particularly in soil with either very low or high plasticity. In addition, critics of the fall cone method indicate that the liquid limit can be determined by the fall cone even though it is not possible with the Casagrande cup which is why the soil should be noted as non-plastic. This paper presents how the Casagrande cup method is inapplicable for low plasticity silt due to e.g. problems with cutting the groove. The fall cone method is recommended because the results are more accurate and independent of individual execution. However, the fall cone apparatus also has an applicability limit where it is not possible to determine the liquid limit which is why the silt should be noted as non-plastic. This limit occurs when a clear water level is observed due to quick draining.

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KW - Laboratory Equipment

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VL - 1

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BT - NGM 2012 Proceedings

PB - Dansk Geoteknisk Forening

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Poulsen R, Ibsen LB, Nielsen BN. Difficulties Regarding Determination of Plasticity Index of Silty Soils by use of Casagrande and Fall Cone Methods. In NGM 2012 Proceedings: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting. Vol. 1. Dansk Geoteknisk Forening. 2012. p. 199-206