Distributed Event-Triggered Optimal Control Method for Heterogeneous Energy Storage Systems in Smart Grid

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Increasing implementation of energy storage systems (ESS) is an available way to mitigate the fluctuation of renewable energy sources (RES) in smart grid. This paper proposes distributed control strategies without/with event-triggered information delivery for a group of heterogeneous energy storage systems (HESS) with different parameters such that the power fluctuation of renewable generation and load variation can be smoothed, meanwhile ensuring power and energy sharing among various ESS. To mitigate the impacts of parameter differences in HESS, a weighted control matrix is designed, and the method of deriving optimal feedback control gain is designed with the help of Riccati control theory. Aiming at reducing communication burdens meanwhile guaranteeing system performance, an event-triggered information delivery strategy without Zeno behavior is introduced to the distributed control method. Convergence and stability of the proposed methods are verified by rigorous mathematical analysis. Simulation studies are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can achieve the state-of-charge (SoC), the state-of-temperature (SoT) and the state of-energy (SoE) balance of HESS, proportional power sharing and power tracking objectives, even if the states of HESS are interfered by random disturbances.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)1944-1956
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Buildings
  • Decentralized control
  • Demand response
  • Load modeling
  • Renewable energy sources
  • State of charge
  • Voltage control
  • event-triggered control
  • heterogeneous energy storage system (HESS)
  • Distributed control
  • energy and power sharing


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