Domestic Challenges and External Dependency in Bhutan

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Bhutan is a small landlocked country squeezed in between the two Asian giants, India, and China. The scholarly literature about the country’s external relations is scarce and even less research has been done on the nexus between its development trajectory and position in an international geo-strategic perspective.
This contribution investigates the links between Bhutan’s geopolitical and geo-economic relations with India and studies the impacts political on socio-economic development, growth, and social welfare. Dependency comes in many forms and in this case, it ranges from direct interference in election to ODA, grants and loans to infrastructure and dams creating vulnerabilities and uncertainties about the near future. Interestingly, the relationship is characterized by a certain inertia although shifting governments in Bhutan have also taken advantage of its developmental capacities in dealing with the international donor community.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnvironment, Development and Culture in South and East Asia : Local, Regional and International Perspectives
EditorsRajiv Thakur
Number of pages20
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jul 2022


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