Economic and environmental evaluation of different collection models for spent power batteries

Xiaoning Xia, Pengwei Li*, Yang Cheng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The efficient collection of spent batteries is important for the recycling of power batteries and the sustainable advancement of electric vehicles (EVs). This study introduces and evaluates 14 power battery collection models, encompassing single-channel, dual-channel, and triple-channel scenarios, which encapsulate the dynamics of competition, cooperation, and co-opetition among key stakeholders. Employing Stackelberg game theory and simulation analysis, this study assesses the economic and environmental benefits of these models, with particular attention to the impact of consumer environmental awareness and competition intensity. Findings indicate that the collaborative collection model involving battery manufacturers, EV companies, and third-party recyclers (Model MVTP) delivers superior economic outcomes, with benefits ranging from 20.3 to 20.31 billion RMB. Meanwhile, the competitive three-party collection model (Model M-V-TP) stands out for its environmental benefits, achieving collection rates between 14.95% and 25.65%. Intriguingly, while competition intensity does not influence the outcomes of single-channel models, it diminishes both economic and environmental benefits in dual- and triple-channel scenarios. Moreover, enhanced consumer environmental awareness consistently elevates the economic benefits of all models, though its effect on environmental benefits varies—enhancing collection rates in single- and dual-channel models but detrimentally impacting the triple-channel model.
Original languageEnglish
Article number131471
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2024


  • Closed-loop supply chain
  • Collection models
  • Game theory
  • Spent power batteries


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