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Due to an increasing demand for oxide glasses with a better mechanical performance, there is a need to improve our understanding of the composition-structure-mechanical property relations in these brittle materials. At present, some properties such as Young's modulus can to a large extent be predicted based on the chemical composition, while others—in particular fracture-related properties—are typically optimized based on a trial-and-error approach. In this work, we study the mechanical properties of a series of 20 glasses in the quartenary Na 2O–Al 2O 3–B 2O 3–SiO 2 system with fixed soda content, thus accessing different structural domains. Ultrasonic echography is used to determine the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio, while Vickers indentation is used to determine hardness. Furthermore, the single-edge precracked beam method is used to estimate the fracture toughness (K Ic) for some compositions of interest. The compositional evolutions of Vickers hardness and Young's modulus are in good agreement with those predicted from models based on bond constraint density and strength. Although there is a larger deviation, the overall compositional trend in K Ic can also be predicted by a model based on the strength of the bonds assumed to be involved in the fracture process.