Fibroblasts play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms of several socially significant diseases, including pulmonary and cardiovascular fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, systemic sclerosis, progressive kidney disease. The alterations of the epitranscriptome, including more than 170 distinct posttranscriptional RNA modifications or editing events, justified their investigation as an important modulator of fibrosis. Recent development of high-throughput methods allows the identification of RNA modification sites and their mechanistic aspect in the fibrosis development. The most common RNA modification is methylation of N6-adenosine deposited by the m6A methyltransferase complex (METTL3/14/16, WTAP, KIAA1429, and RBM15/15B), erased by demethylases (FTO and ALKBH5), and recognized by binding proteins (e.g., YTHDF1/2/3, YTHDC1/2, IGF2BP1/2/3, etc.). Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is another abundant editing event converting adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA regions through the action of the adenosine deaminase (ADAR) proteins. Last but not least, 5-methylcytosine (m5C) regulates the stability and translation of mRNAs. All those RNA modifications have been observed in mRNA as well as the noncoding regions of pre-mRNA and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and demonstrated to be involved in fibrosis in different cellular and animal models. This Mini-Review focuses on the latest research on epitranscriptomic marks related to fibroblast biology and fibrosis as well as elucidates the future research directions in this context.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2022|
- RNA editing
- RNA methylation