Estimation and Sizing of Frequency Reserves from Flexible Demand Units

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review


The installed capacity of renewable energy sources is increasing at a high rate, and even larger extent is predicted in the future. Conventional generators which have been providing stability and reliability to power system are being replaced by renewable energy sources. Consequently, problems in terms of power system stability are arising and are reflected in frequency deviation. Therefore, additional reserves are needed and as one of the possible solutions is electric boilers or water heaters modelled as flexible load. This work presents the analysis of the dynamic response of generating units and flexible loads in load frequency control subjected to intermittent renewable energy sources generation. Moreover, estimation of frequency reserve requirements based on overall system performance and capabilities of new regulation resources in future power systems dominated by renewable energy sources is done.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2018 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC)
Number of pages6
PublisherIEEE Press
Publication dateSep 2018
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-2911-6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-2910-9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018
Event53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference
- Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 4 Sep 20187 Sep 2018


Conference53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom


  • area control error
  • electric water heater
  • frequency reserves
  • load frequency control

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