Exploring the Learning Potentials of Augmented Reality Through Speculative Design

Sara Paasch Knudsen*, Helene Husted Hansen, Rikke Ørngreen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A state-of-the-art literature review pointed to the need for further investigation of augmented reality to broaden the understanding of the learning potentials of augmented reality. This paper presents an empirical study intended to bring insights into the learning potentials of augmented reality regarding both formal and informal learning using a speculative design process in online workshops with students from a K1–12 teacher education program. The empirical investigation consisted of five online workshops with a duration of 2.5 h and three to six participants per workshop. The theoretical frame of the study was speculative design workshop and John Dewey’s theories. The paper explored two research questions: What are the learning potentials of augmented reality when explored by students from a K1–12 teacher education program using speculative design? Why and when is it relevant to explore the learning potentials of augmented reality, in such a way and how can it be done? The findings show that the learning potentials of augmented reality span different categories, such as supporting praxis, bridging the physical and virtual, use of different modalities and activities, supporting social practice, and extending communication e.g. across locations. Our findings further indicate that although speculating on the learning potentials of augmented reality is difficult, it can offer some insights that inform both the current state of a situation or topic and direct future inquiries in the field. However, the user’s input does not always bring innovative insights and tends to be dependent on their existing knowledge and attitudes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDesign, Learning, and Innovation : 6th EAI International Conference, DLI 2021, Virtual Event, December 10-11, 2021, Proceedings
EditorsEva Brooks, Jeanette Sjöberg, Anders Kalsgaard Møller
Number of pages8
Publication date24 May 2022
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-06674-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-06675-7
Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2022
Event6th EAI International Conference on Design, Learning, and Innovation, DLI 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 10 Dec 202111 Dec 2021


Conference6th EAI International Conference on Design, Learning, and Innovation, DLI 2021
CityVirtual, Online
SeriesLecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.


  • Augmented reality
  • Immersive learning
  • Speculative design


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