Formation of surface nanostructures on rutile (TiO2): comparative study of low-energy cluster ion and high-energy monoatomic ion impact

Vladimir Popok, Jens Jensen, Sasa Vuckovic, Anna Mackova, Christina Trautmann

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Abstract

The formation of nanostructures on rutile (TiO2) surfaces formed after the implantation of keV-energy Ar+ cluster ions and MeV- to GeV-energy multiply-charged heavy ions (Iq+, Taq+ and Uq+) is studied. Despite the differences in stopping and energy transfer mechanisms between the keV-energy cluster ions and MeV-energy monoatomic ions, their impacts lead to similar type of surface damage – craters. For the cluster ion implantation the craters are caused by the multiple-collision effect (dominated by nuclear stopping) and the high density of energy and momentum transferred to the target, while for the case of MeV multiply-charged ions the craters are probably formed due to the Coulomb explosion and fast energy transfer caused by the electronic stopping. At ion energies in the GeV range, nanosize protrusions, so-called hillocks are observed on the surface. It is suggested that electronic stopping leads to the formation of continuous tracks and the transferred energy is high enough to melt the material along whole projectile path. Elastic rebound of the tension between the molten and solid state phases leads to liquid flow, expansion and quenching of the melt thus forming the hillocks. The atomic force microscopy measurements carried out in different environmental conditions (temperature and atmosphere) suggesting that the damaged material at the nanosize impact spots has very different water affinity properties (higher hydrophilicity or water adsorption) compared to the non-irradiated rutile surface.
Original languageEnglish
Article number205303
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume42
Issue number20
Number of pages6
ISSN0022-3727
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes

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