Future Greener Seaports: A Review of New Infrastructure, Challenges, and Energy Efficiency Measures

Muhammad Sadiq, Syed Wajahat Ali, Yacine Terriche, Muhammad Umair Mutarraf, Mustafa Alrayah Hassan, Khalid Hamid, Zulfiqar Ali, Jia Yin Sze, Chun Lien Su*, Josep M. Guerrero

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
112 Downloads (Pure)


Recently, the application of renewable energy sources (RESs) for power distribution systems is growing immensely. This advancement brings several advantages, such as energy sustainability and reliability, easier maintenance, cost-effective energy sources, and ecofriendly. The application of RESs in maritime systems such as port microgrids massively improves energy efficiency and reduces the utilization of fossil fuels, which is a serious threat to the environment. Accordingly, ports are receiving several initiatives to improve their energy efficiency by deploying different types of RESs based on the power electronic converters. This paper conducts a systematic review to provide cutting-edge state-of-the-art on the modern electrification and infrastructure of seaports taking into account some challenges such as the environmental aspects, energy efficiency enhancement, renewable energy integration, and legislative and regulatory requirements. Moreover, the technological methods, including electrifications, digitalization, onshore power supply applications, and energy storage systems of ports, are addressed. Furthermore, details of some operational strategies such as energy-aware operations and peak-shaving are delivered. Besides, the infrastructure scheme to enhance the energy efficiency of modern ports, including port microgrids and seaport smart microgrids are delivered. Finally, the applications of nascent technologies in seaports are presented.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9433559
JournalIEEE Access
Pages (from-to)75568-75587
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under Grant MOST 107-2221-E-992-073-MY3.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Digitalization
  • energy efficiency
  • green/smart ports
  • Internet of Things
  • port microgrids
  • smart energy management


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