Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Lily Alexander, H. Ross Anderson, Victoria F. Bachman, Stan Biryukov, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, Daniel Casey, Matthew M. Coates, Aaron Cohen, Kristen Delwiche, Kara Estep, Joseph J. Frostad, K. C. Astha, Hmwe H. Kyu, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Marie Ng, Erica Leigh Slepak, Bernadette A. Thomas, Joseph Wagner & 702 others Gunn Marit Aasvang, Cristiana Abbafati, Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw F. Abera, Victor Aboyans, Biju Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal Abraham, Ibrahim Abubakar, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh, Tania C. Aburto, Tom Achoki, Ademola Adelekan, Koranteng Adofo, Arsène K. Adou, José C. Adsuar, Ashkan Afshin, Emilie E. Agardh, Mazin J. Al Khabouri, Faris H. Al Lami, Sayed Saidul Alam, Deena Alasfoor, Mohammed I. Albittar, Miguel A. Alegretti, Alicia V. Aleman, Zewdie A. Alemu, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Samia Alhabib, Raghib Ali, Mohammed K. Ali, François Alla, Peter Allebeck, Peter J. Allen, Ubai Alsharif, Elena Alvarez, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Adansi A. Amankwaa, Azmeraw T. Amare, Emmanuel A. Ameh, Omid Ameli, Heresh Amini, Walid Ammar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Carl Abelardo T Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Solveig Argeseanu Cunningham, Johan Arnlöv, Valentina S. Arsic Arsenijevic, Al Artaman, Rana J. Asghar, Reza Assadi, Lydia S. Atkins, Charles Atkinson, Marco A. Avila, Baffour Awuah, Alaa Badawi, Maria C. Bahit, Talal Bakfalouni, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Shivanthi Balalla, Ravi Kumar Balu, Amitava Banerjee, Ryan M. Barber, Suzanne L. Barker-Collo, Simon Barquera, Lars Barregard, Lope H. Barrero, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Ana C. Basto-Abreu, Arindam Basu, Sanjay Basu, Mohammed O. Basulaiman, Carolina Batis Ruvalcaba, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L. Bell, Corina Benjet, Derrick A. Bennett, Habib Benzian, Eduardo Bernabé, Tariku J. Beyene, Neeraj Bhala, Ashish Bhalla, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Boris Bikbov, Aref A. Bin Abdulhak, Jed D. Blore, Fiona M. Blyth, Megan A. Bohensky, Berrak Bora Başara, Guilherme Borges, Natan M. Bornstein, Dipan Bose, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert R. Bourne, Michael Brainin, Alexandra Brazinova, Nicholas J. Breitborde, Hermann Brenner, Adam D M Briggs, David M. Broday, Peter M. Brooks, Nigel G. Bruce, Traolach S. Brugha, Bert Brunekreef, Rachelle Buchbinder, Linh N. Bui, Gene Bukhman, Andrew G. Bulloch, Michael Burch, Peter G J Burney, Ismael R. Campos-Nonato, Julio C. Campuzano, Alejandra J. Cantoral, Jack Caravanos, Rosario Cárdenas, Elisabeth Cardis, David O. Carpenter, Valeria Caso, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Ruben E. Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Fiorella Cavalleri, Alanur Çavlin, Vineet K. Chadha, Jung Chen Chang, Fiona J. Charlson, Honglei Chen, Wanqing Chen, Zhengming Chen, Peggy P. Chiang, Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Rajiv Chowdhury, Costas A. Christophi, Ting Wu Chuang, Sumeet S. Chugh, Massimo Cirillo, Thomas K D Claßen, Valentina Colistro, Mercedes Colomar, Samantha M. Colquhoun, Alejandra G. Contreras, Cyrus Cooper, Kimberly Cooperrider, Leslie T. Cooper, Josef Coresh, Karen J. Courville, Michael H. Criqui, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, James Damsere-Derry, Hadi Danawi, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Paul I. Dargan, Adrian Davis, Dragos V. Davitoiu, Anand Dayama, E. Filipa De Castro, Vanessa De La Cruz-Góngora, Diego De Leo, Graça De Lima, Louisa Degenhardt, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Robert P. Dellavalle, Kebede Deribe, Sarah Derrett, Don C. Des Jarlais, Muluken Dessalegn, Gabrielle A. DeVeber, Karen M. Devries, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Mukesh K. Dherani, Daniel Dicker, Eric L. Ding, Klara Dokova, E. Ray Dorsey, Tim R. Driscoll, Leilei Duan, Adnan M. Durrani, Beth E. Ebel, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Yousef M. Elshrek, Matthias Endres, Sergey P. Ermakov, Holly E. Erskine, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Saman Fahimi, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Farshad Farzadfar, Derek F J Fay, Valery L. Feigin, Andrea B. Feigl, Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Alize J. Ferrari, Cleusa P. Ferri, Abraham D. Flaxman, Thomas D. Fleming, Nataliya Foigt, Kyle J. Foreman, Urbano Fra Paleo, Richard C. Franklin, Belinda Gabbe, Lynne Gaffikin, Emmanuela Gakidou, Amiran Gamkrelidze, Fortuné G. Gankpé, Ron T. Gansevoort, Francisco A. García-Guerra, Evariste Gasana, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Bradford D. Gessner, Pete Gething, Katherine B. Gibney, Richard F. Gillum, Ibrahim A M Ginawi, Maurice Giroud, Giorgia Giussani, Shifalika Goenka, Ketevan Goginashvili, Hector Gomez Dantes, Philimon Gona, Teresita Gonzalez De Cosio, Dinorah González-Castell, Carolyn C. Gotay, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N. Gouda, Richard L. Guerrant, Harish C. Gugnani, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Reyna A. Gutiérrez, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Holly Hagan, Maria Hagstromer, Yara A. Halasa, Randah R. Hamadeh, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J. Hankey, Yuantao Hao, Hilda L. Harb, Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Josep Maria Haro, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I. Hay, Mohammad T. Hedayati, Ileana B. Heredia-Pi, Lucia Hernandez, Kyle R. Heuton, Pouria Heydarpour, Martha Hijar, Hans W. Hoek, Howard J. Hoffman, John C. Hornberger, H. Hosgood, Damian G. Hoy, Mohamed Hsairi, Guoqing Hu, Howard Hu, Cheng Huang, John J. Huang, Bryan J. Hubbell, Laetitia Huiart, Abdullatif Husseini, Marissa L. Iannarone, Kim M. Iburg, Bulat T. Idrisov, Nayu Ikeda, Kaire Innos, Manami Inoue, Farhad Islami, Samaya Ismayilova, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Henrica A. Jansen, Deborah L. Jarvis, Simerjot K. Jassal, Alejandra Jauregui, Sudha Jayaraman, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Paul N. Jensen, Vivekanand Jha, Fan Jiang, Guohong Jiang, Ying Jiang, Jost B. Jonas, Knud Juel, Haidong Kan, Sidibe S. Kany Roseline, Nadim E. Karam, André Karch, Corine K. Karema, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Dhruv S. Kazi, Andrew H. Kemp, Andre P. Kengne, Andre Keren, Yousef S. Khader, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Ejaz A. Khan, Young Ho Khang, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Irma Khonelidze, Christian Kieling, Daniel Kim, Sungroul Kim, Yunjin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Yohannes Kinfu, Jonas M. Kinge, Brett M. Kissela, Miia Kivipelto, Luke D. Knibbs, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Yoshihiro Kokubo, M. Rifat Kose, Soewarta Kosen, Alexander Kraemer, Michael Kravchenko, Sanjay Krishnaswami, Hans Kromhout, Tiffany Ku, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Ernst J. Kuipers, Chanda Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, G. Anil Kumar, Gene F. Kwan, Taavi Lai, Arjun Lakshmana Balaji, Ratilal Lalloo, Tea Lallukka, Hilton Lam, Qing Lan, Van C. Lansingh, Heidi J. Larson, Anders Larsson, Dennis O. Laryea, Pablo M. Lavados, Alicia E. Lawrynowicz, Janet L. Leasher, Jong Tae Lee, James Leigh, Ricky Leung, Miriam Levi, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Juan Liang, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S. Lim, M. Patrice Lindsay, Steven E. Lipshultz, Shiwei Liu, Yang Liu, Belinda K. Lloyd, Giancarlo Logroscino, Stephanie J. London, Nancy Lopez, Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Paulo A. Lotufo, Rafael Lozano, Raimundas Lunevicius, Jixiang Ma, Stefan Ma, Vasco M P Machado, Michael F. MacIntyre, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Abbas A. Mahdi, Marek Majdan, Reza Malekzadeh, Srikanth Mangalam, Christopher C. Mapoma, Marape Marape, Wagner Marcenes, David J. Margolis, Christopher Margono, Guy B. Marks, Randall V. Martin, Melvin B. Marzan, Mohammad T. Mashal, Felix Masiye, Amanda J. Mason-Jones, Kunihiro Matsushita, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M. Mayosi, Tasara T. Mazorodze, Abigail C. McKay, Martin McKee, Abigail McLain, Peter A. Meaney, Catalina Medina, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Yohannes A. Melaku, Michele Meltzer, Ziad A. Memish, Walter Mendoza, George A. Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Francis Apolinary Mhimbira, Renata Micha, Ted R. Miller, Edward J. Mills, Awoke Misganaw, Santosh Mishra, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Karzan A. Mohammad, Ali H. Mokdad, Glen L. Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Julio C. Montañez Hernandez, Marcella Montico, Ami R. Moore, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Joanna Moschandreas, Wilkister N. Moturi, Dariush Mozaffarian, Ulrich O. Mueller, Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Erin C. Mullany, Kinnari S. Murthy, Mohsen Naghavi, Ziad Nahas, Aliya Naheed, Kovin S. Naidoo, Luigi Naldi, Devina Nand, Vinay Nangia, K. M Venkat Narayan, Denis Nash, Bruce Neal, Chakib Nejjari, Sudan P. Neupane, Charles R. Newton, Frida N. Ngalesoni, Jean De Dieu Ngirabega, Grant Nguyen, Nhung T. Nguyen, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Muhammad I. Nisar, José R. Nogueira, Joan M. Nolla, Sandra Nolte, Ole F. Norheim, Rosana E. Norman, Bo Norrving, Luke Nyakarahuka, In Hwan Oh, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Bolajoko O. Olusanya, Saad B. Omer, John Nelson Opio, Ricardo Orozco, Rodolfo S. Pagcatipunan, Amanda W. Pain, Jeyaraj D. Pandian, Carlo Irwin A Panelo, Christina Papachristou, Eun Kee Park, Charles D. Parry, Angel J. Paternina Caicedo, Scott B. Patten, Vinod K. Paul, Boris I. Pavlin, Neil Pearce, Lilia S. Pedraza, Andrea Pedroza, Ljiljana Pejin Stokic, Ayfer Pekericli, David M. Pereira, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Samuel A L Perry, Aslam Pervaiz, Konrad Pesudovs, Carrie B. Peterson, Max Petzold, Michael R. Phillips, Hwee Pin Phua, Dietrich Plass, Dan Poenaru, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, Constance D. Pond, C. Arden Pope, Daniel Pope, Svetlana Popova, Farshad Pourmalek, John Powles, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Noela M. Prasad, Dima M. Qato, Amado D. Quezada, D. Alex A Quistberg, Lionel Racapé, Anwar Rafay, Kazem Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Murugesan Raju, Ivo Rakovac, Saleem M. Rana, Mayuree Rao, Homie Razavi, K. Srinath Reddy, Amany H. Refaat, Jürgen Rehm, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Antonio L. Ribeiro, Patricia M. Riccio, Lee Richardson, Anne Riederer, Margaret Robinson, Anna Roca, Alina Rodriguez, David Rojas-Rueda, Isabelle Romieu, Luca Ronfani, Robin Room, Nobhojit Roy, George M. Ruhago, Lesley Rushton, Nsanzimana Sabin, Ralph L. Sacco, Sukanta Saha, Ramesh Sahathevan, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Joshua A. Salomon, Deborah Salvo, Uchechukwu K. Sampson, Juan R. Sanabria, Luz Maria Sanchez, Tania G. Sánchez-Pimienta, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Logan Sandar, Itamar S. Santos, Amir Sapkota, Maheswar Satpathy, James E. Saunders, Monika Sawhney, Mete I. Saylan, Peter Scarborough, Jürgen C. Schmidt, Ione J C Schneider, Ben Schöttker, David C. Schwebel, James G. Scott, Soraya Seedat, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Berrin Serdar, Edson E. Servan-Mori, Gavin Shaddick, Saeid Shahraz, Teresa Shamah Levy, Siyi Shangguan, Jun She, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kenji Shibuya, Hwashin H. Shin, Yukito Shinohara, Rahman Shiri, Kawkab Shishani, Ivy Shiue, Inga D. Sigfusdottir, Donald H. Silberberg, Edgar P. Simard, Shireen Sindi, Abhishek Singh, Gitanjali M. Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Michael Soljak, Samir Soneji, Kjetil Søreide, Sergey Soshnikov, Luciano A. Sposato, Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Vasiliki Stathopoulou, Nadine Steckling, Dan J. Stein, Murray B. Stein, Natalie Stephens, Heidi Stöckl, Kurt Straif, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Lela Sturua, Bruno F. Sunguya, Soumya Swaminathan, Mamta Swaroop, Bryan L. Sykes, Karen M. Tabb, Ken Takahashi, Roberto T. Talongwa, Nikhil Tandon, David Tanne, Marcel Tanner, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Braden J. Te Ao, Carolina M. Teixeira, Martha M. Téllez Rojo, Abdullah S. Terkawi, José Luis Texcalac-Sangrador, Sarah V. Thackway, Blake Thomson, Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G. Thrift, George D. Thurston, Taavi Tillmann, Myriam Tobollik, Marcello Tonelli, Fotis Topouzis, Jeffrey A. Towbin, Hideaki Toyoshima, Jefferson Traebert, Bach X. Tran, Leonardo Trasande, Matias Trillini, Ulises Trujillo, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Miltiadis Tsilimbaris, Emin Murat Tuzcu, Uche S. Uchendu, Kingsley N. Ukwaja, Selen B. Uzun, Steven Van De Vijver, Rita Van Dingenen, Coen H. Van Gool, Jim Van Os, Yuri Y. Varakin, Tommi J. Vasankari, Ana Maria N Vasconcelos, Monica S. Vavilala, Lennert J. Veerman, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, N. Venketasubramanian, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Salvador Villalpando, Francesco S. Violante, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Gregory R. Wagner, Stephen G. Waller, Mitchell T. Wallin, Xia Wan, Haidong Wang, JianLi Wang, Linhong Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Yanping Wang, Tati S. Warouw, Charlotte H. Watts, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G. Weintraub, Andrea Werdecker, K. Ryan Wessells, Ronny Westerman, Harvey A. Whiteford, James D. Wilkinson, Hywel C. Williams, Thomas N. Williams, Solomon M. Woldeyohannes, Charles D A Wolfe, John Q. Wong, Anthony D. Woolf, Jonathan L. Wright, Brittany Wurtz, Gelin Xu, Lijing L. Yan, Gonghuan Yang, Yuichiro Yano, Pengpeng Ye, Muluken Yenesew, Gökalp K. Yentür, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok Jun Yoon, Mustafa Z. Younis, Zourkaleini Younoussi, Chuanhua Yu, Maysaa E. Zaki, Yong Zhao, Yingfeng Zheng, Maigeng Zhou, Jun Zhu, Shankuan Zhu, Xiaonong Zou, Joseph R. Zunt, Alan D. Lopez, Theo Vos, Christopher J. Murray, A. M. Temesgen

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Abstract

Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian metaregression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

Original languageEnglish
JournalLancet
Volume386
Issue number10010
Pages (from-to)2287-2323
Number of pages37
ISSN0140-6736
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2015

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Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Global Burden of Disease
Unsafe Sex
Body Mass Index
Child Nutrition Disorders
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Northern Africa
Hand Disinfection
Middle East
Far East
Mothers
Growth Disorders
Neglected Diseases
Behavioral Sciences
Trichloroethylene
Eastern Europe
Sanitation
Bayes Theorem
Social Sciences

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Forouzanfar, Mohammad H. ; Alexander, Lily ; Anderson, H. Ross ; Bachman, Victoria F. ; Biryukov, Stan ; Brauer, Michael ; Burnett, Richard ; Casey, Daniel ; Coates, Matthew M. ; Cohen, Aaron ; Delwiche, Kristen ; Estep, Kara ; Frostad, Joseph J. ; Astha, K. C. ; Kyu, Hmwe H. ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Ng, Marie ; Slepak, Erica Leigh ; Thomas, Bernadette A. ; Wagner, Joseph ; Aasvang, Gunn Marit ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw F. ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abraham, Biju ; Puthenpurakal Abraham, Jerry ; Abubakar, Ibrahim ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E ; Aburto, Tania C. ; Achoki, Tom ; Adelekan, Ademola ; Adofo, Koranteng ; Adou, Arsène K. ; Adsuar, José C. ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agardh, Emilie E. ; Al Khabouri, Mazin J. ; Al Lami, Faris H. ; Alam, Sayed Saidul ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Albittar, Mohammed I. ; Alegretti, Miguel A. ; Aleman, Alicia V. ; Alemu, Zewdie A. ; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael ; Alhabib, Samia ; Ali, Raghib ; Ali, Mohammed K. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Peter J. ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alvarez, Elena ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amankwaa, Adansi A. ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Ameh, Emmanuel A. ; Ameli, Omid ; Amini, Heresh ; Ammar, Walid ; Anderson, Benjamin O. ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig ; Arnlöv, Johan ; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S. ; Artaman, Al ; Asghar, Rana J. ; Assadi, Reza ; Atkins, Lydia S. ; Atkinson, Charles ; Avila, Marco A. ; Awuah, Baffour ; Badawi, Alaa ; Bahit, Maria C. ; Bakfalouni, Talal ; Balakrishnan, Kalpana ; Balalla, Shivanthi ; Balu, Ravi Kumar ; Banerjee, Amitava ; Barber, Ryan M. ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L. ; Barquera, Simon ; Barregard, Lars ; Barrero, Lope H. ; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh ; Basto-Abreu, Ana C. ; Basu, Arindam ; Basu, Sanjay ; Basulaiman, Mohammed O. ; Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina ; Beardsley, Justin ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bekele, Tolesa ; Bell, Michelle L. ; Benjet, Corina ; Bennett, Derrick A. ; Benzian, Habib ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Beyene, Tariku J. ; Bhala, Neeraj ; Bhalla, Ashish ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Bikbov, Boris ; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A. ; Blore, Jed D. ; Blyth, Fiona M. ; Bohensky, Megan A. ; Bora Başara, Berrak ; Borges, Guilherme ; Bornstein, Natan M. ; Bose, Dipan ; Boufous, Soufiane ; Bourne, Rupert R. ; Brainin, Michael ; Brazinova, Alexandra ; Breitborde, Nicholas J. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Briggs, Adam D M ; Broday, David M. ; Brooks, Peter M. ; Bruce, Nigel G. ; Brugha, Traolach S. ; Brunekreef, Bert ; Buchbinder, Rachelle ; Bui, Linh N. ; Bukhman, Gene ; Bulloch, Andrew G. ; Burch, Michael ; Burney, Peter G J ; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R. ; Campuzano, Julio C. ; Cantoral, Alejandra J. ; Caravanos, Jack ; Cárdenas, Rosario ; Cardis, Elisabeth ; Carpenter, David O. ; Caso, Valeria ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A. ; Castro, Ruben E. ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Cavalleri, Fiorella ; Çavlin, Alanur ; Chadha, Vineet K. ; Chang, Jung Chen ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Chen, Honglei ; Chen, Wanqing ; Chen, Zhengming ; Chiang, Peggy P. ; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel ; Chowdhury, Rajiv ; Christophi, Costas A. ; Chuang, Ting Wu ; Chugh, Sumeet S. ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Claßen, Thomas K D ; Colistro, Valentina ; Colomar, Mercedes ; Colquhoun, Samantha M. ; Contreras, Alejandra G. ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Cooperrider, Kimberly ; Cooper, Leslie T. ; Coresh, Josef ; Courville, Karen J. ; Criqui, Michael H. ; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia ; Damsere-Derry, James ; Danawi, Hadi ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Dargan, Paul I. ; Davis, Adrian ; Davitoiu, Dragos V. ; Dayama, Anand ; De Castro, E. Filipa ; De La Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa ; De Leo, Diego ; De Lima, Graça ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja ; Dellavalle, Robert P. ; Deribe, Kebede ; Derrett, Sarah ; Des Jarlais, Don C. ; Dessalegn, Muluken ; DeVeber, Gabrielle A. ; Devries, Karen M. ; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Dherani, Mukesh K. ; Dicker, Daniel ; Ding, Eric L. ; Dokova, Klara ; Dorsey, E. Ray ; Driscoll, Tim R. ; Duan, Leilei ; Durrani, Adnan M. ; Ebel, Beth E. ; Ellenbogen, Richard G. ; Elshrek, Yousef M. ; Endres, Matthias ; Ermakov, Sergey P. ; Erskine, Holly E. ; Eshrati, Babak ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Fahimi, Saman ; Faraon, Emerito Jose A ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fay, Derek F J ; Feigin, Valery L. ; Feigl, Andrea B. ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad ; Ferrari, Alize J. ; Ferri, Cleusa P. ; Flaxman, Abraham D. ; Fleming, Thomas D. ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Foreman, Kyle J. ; Fra Paleo, Urbano ; Franklin, Richard C. ; Gabbe, Belinda ; Gaffikin, Lynne ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Gamkrelidze, Amiran ; Gankpé, Fortuné G. ; Gansevoort, Ron T. ; García-Guerra, Francisco A. ; Gasana, Evariste ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gessner, Bradford D. ; Gething, Pete ; Gibney, Katherine B. ; Gillum, Richard F. ; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M ; Giroud, Maurice ; Giussani, Giorgia ; Goenka, Shifalika ; Goginashvili, Ketevan ; Gomez Dantes, Hector ; Gona, Philimon ; Gonzalez De Cosio, Teresita ; González-Castell, Dinorah ; Gotay, Carolyn C. ; Goto, Atsushi ; Gouda, Hebe N. ; Guerrant, Richard L. ; Gugnani, Harish C. ; Guillemin, Francis ; Gunnell, David ; Gupta, Rahul ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Gutiérrez, Reyna A. ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hagan, Holly ; Hagstromer, Maria ; Halasa, Yara A. ; Hamadeh, Randah R. ; Hammami, Mouhanad ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hao, Yuantao ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu ; Haro, Josep Maria ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon I. ; Hedayati, Mohammad T. ; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B. ; Hernandez, Lucia ; Heuton, Kyle R. ; Heydarpour, Pouria ; Hijar, Martha ; Hoek, Hans W. ; Hoffman, Howard J. ; Hornberger, John C. ; Hosgood, H. ; Hoy, Damian G. ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Hu, Guoqing ; Hu, Howard ; Huang, Cheng ; Huang, John J. ; Hubbell, Bryan J. ; Huiart, Laetitia ; Husseini, Abdullatif ; Iannarone, Marissa L. ; Iburg, Kim M. ; Idrisov, Bulat T. ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Innos, Kaire ; Inoue, Manami ; Islami, Farhad ; Ismayilova, Samaya ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H. ; Jansen, Henrica A. ; Jarvis, Deborah L. ; Jassal, Simerjot K. ; Jauregui, Alejandra ; Jayaraman, Sudha ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; Jensen, Paul N. ; Jha, Vivekanand ; Jiang, Fan ; Jiang, Guohong ; Jiang, Ying ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Juel, Knud ; Kan, Haidong ; Kany Roseline, Sidibe S. ; Karam, Nadim E. ; Karch, André ; Karema, Corine K. ; Karthikeyan, Ganesan ; Kaul, Anil ; Kawakami, Norito ; Kazi, Dhruv S. ; Kemp, Andrew H. ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Keren, Andre ; Khader, Yousef S. ; Ali Hassan Khalifa, Shams Eldin ; Khan, Ejaz A. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Khonelidze, Irma ; Kieling, Christian ; Kim, Daniel ; Kim, Sungroul ; Kim, Yunjin ; Kimokoti, Ruth W. ; Kinfu, Yohannes ; Kinge, Jonas M. ; Kissela, Brett M. ; Kivipelto, Miia ; Knibbs, Luke D. ; Knudsen, Ann Kristin ; Kokubo, Yoshihiro ; Kose, M. Rifat ; Kosen, Soewarta ; Kraemer, Alexander ; Kravchenko, Michael ; Krishnaswami, Sanjay ; Kromhout, Hans ; Ku, Tiffany ; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy ; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu ; Kuipers, Ernst J. ; Kulkarni, Chanda ; Kulkarni, Veena S. ; Kumar, G. Anil ; Kwan, Gene F. ; Lai, Taavi ; Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun ; Lalloo, Ratilal ; Lallukka, Tea ; Lam, Hilton ; Lan, Qing ; Lansingh, Van C. ; Larson, Heidi J. ; Larsson, Anders ; Laryea, Dennis O. ; Lavados, Pablo M. ; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. ; Leasher, Janet L. ; Lee, Jong Tae ; Leigh, James ; Leung, Ricky ; Levi, Miriam ; Li, Yichong ; Li, Yongmei ; Liang, Juan ; Liang, Xiaofeng ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Lindsay, M. Patrice ; Lipshultz, Steven E. ; Liu, Shiwei ; Liu, Yang ; Lloyd, Belinda K. ; Logroscino, Giancarlo ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lopez, Nancy ; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Lozano, Rafael ; Lunevicius, Raimundas ; Ma, Jixiang ; Ma, Stefan ; Machado, Vasco M P ; MacIntyre, Michael F. ; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos ; Mahdi, Abbas A. ; Majdan, Marek ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mangalam, Srikanth ; Mapoma, Christopher C. ; Marape, Marape ; Marcenes, Wagner ; Margolis, David J. ; Margono, Christopher ; Marks, Guy B. ; Martin, Randall V. ; Marzan, Melvin B. ; Mashal, Mohammad T. ; Masiye, Felix ; Mason-Jones, Amanda J. ; Matsushita, Kunihiro ; Matzopoulos, Richard ; Mayosi, Bongani M. ; Mazorodze, Tasara T. ; McKay, Abigail C. ; McKee, Martin ; McLain, Abigail ; Meaney, Peter A. ; Medina, Catalina ; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan ; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola ; Mekonnen, Wubegzier ; Melaku, Yohannes A. ; Meltzer, Michele ; Memish, Ziad A. ; Mendoza, Walter ; Mensah, George A. ; Meretoja, Atte ; Apolinary Mhimbira, Francis ; Micha, Renata ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mills, Edward J. ; Misganaw, Awoke ; Mishra, Santosh ; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah ; Mohammad, Karzan A. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Mola, Glen L. ; Monasta, Lorenzo ; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C. ; Montico, Marcella ; Moore, Ami R. ; Morawska, Lidia ; Mori, Rintaro ; Moschandreas, Joanna ; Moturi, Wilkister N. ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Mueller, Ulrich O. ; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru ; Mullany, Erin C. ; Murthy, Kinnari S. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Nahas, Ziad ; Naheed, Aliya ; Naidoo, Kovin S. ; Naldi, Luigi ; Nand, Devina ; Nangia, Vinay ; Narayan, K. M Venkat ; Nash, Denis ; Neal, Bruce ; Nejjari, Chakib ; Neupane, Sudan P. ; Newton, Charles R. ; Ngalesoni, Frida N. ; Ngirabega, Jean De Dieu ; Nguyen, Grant ; Nguyen, Nhung T. ; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J. ; Nisar, Muhammad I. ; Nogueira, José R. ; Nolla, Joan M. ; Nolte, Sandra ; Norheim, Ole F. ; Norman, Rosana E. ; Norrving, Bo ; Nyakarahuka, Luke ; Oh, In Hwan ; Ohkubo, Takayoshi ; Olusanya, Bolajoko O. ; Omer, Saad B. ; Opio, John Nelson ; Orozco, Ricardo ; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S. ; Pain, Amanda W. ; Pandian, Jeyaraj D. ; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A ; Papachristou, Christina ; Park, Eun Kee ; Parry, Charles D. ; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J. ; Patten, Scott B. ; Paul, Vinod K. ; Pavlin, Boris I. ; Pearce, Neil ; Pedraza, Lilia S. ; Pedroza, Andrea ; Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana ; Pekericli, Ayfer ; Pereira, David M. ; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio ; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando ; Perico, Norberto ; Perry, Samuel A L ; Pervaiz, Aslam ; Pesudovs, Konrad ; Peterson, Carrie B. (Editor) ; Petzold, Max ; Phillips, Michael R. ; Phua, Hwee Pin ; Plass, Dietrich ; Poenaru, Dan ; Polanczyk, Guilherme V. ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Pond, Constance D. ; Pope, C. Arden ; Pope, Daniel ; Popova, Svetlana ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Powles, John ; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj ; Prasad, Noela M. ; Qato, Dima M. ; Quezada, Amado D. ; Quistberg, D. Alex A ; Racapé, Lionel ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi, Kazem ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Ur Rahman, Sajjad ; Raju, Murugesan ; Rakovac, Ivo ; Rana, Saleem M. ; Rao, Mayuree ; Razavi, Homie ; Reddy, K. 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Ryan ; Westerman, Ronny ; Whiteford, Harvey A. ; Wilkinson, James D. ; Williams, Hywel C. ; Williams, Thomas N. ; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M. ; Wolfe, Charles D A ; Wong, John Q. ; Woolf, Anthony D. ; Wright, Jonathan L. ; Wurtz, Brittany ; Xu, Gelin ; Yan, Lijing L. ; Yang, Gonghuan ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Ye, Pengpeng ; Yenesew, Muluken ; Yentür, Gökalp K. ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Yoon, Seok Jun ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Younoussi, Zourkaleini ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaki, Maysaa E. ; Zhao, Yong ; Zheng, Yingfeng ; Zhou, Maigeng ; Zhu, Jun ; Zhu, Shankuan ; Zou, Xiaonong ; Zunt, Joseph R. ; Lopez, Alan D. ; Vos, Theo ; Murray, Christopher J. ; Temesgen, A. M. / Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. In: Lancet. 2015 ; Vol. 386, No. 10010. pp. 2287-2323.
@article{1cdfff4c1f3447c9bcb77ddc9b85c5db,
title = "Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013",
abstract = "Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian metaregression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2{\%} (95{\%} uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6{\%} (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9{\%} (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0{\%} for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5{\%} of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.",
author = "Forouzanfar, {Mohammad H.} and Lily Alexander and Anderson, {H. Ross} and Bachman, {Victoria F.} and Stan Biryukov and Michael Brauer and Richard Burnett and Daniel Casey and Coates, {Matthew M.} and Aaron Cohen and Kristen Delwiche and Kara Estep and Frostad, {Joseph J.} and Astha, {K. C.} and Kyu, {Hmwe H.} and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Marie Ng and Slepak, {Erica Leigh} and Thomas, {Bernadette A.} and Joseph Wagner and Aasvang, {Gunn Marit} and Cristiana Abbafati and {Abbasoglu Ozgoren}, Ayse and Foad Abd-Allah and Abera, {Semaw F.} and Victor Aboyans and Biju Abraham and {Puthenpurakal Abraham}, Jerry and Ibrahim Abubakar and Abu-Rmeileh, {Niveen M E} and Aburto, {Tania C.} and Tom Achoki and Ademola Adelekan and Koranteng Adofo and Adou, {Ars{\`e}ne K.} and Adsuar, {Jos{\'e} C.} and Ashkan Afshin and Agardh, {Emilie E.} and {Al Khabouri}, {Mazin J.} and {Al Lami}, {Faris H.} and Alam, {Sayed Saidul} and Deena Alasfoor and Albittar, {Mohammed I.} and Alegretti, {Miguel A.} and Aleman, {Alicia V.} and Alemu, {Zewdie A.} and Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho and Samia Alhabib and Raghib Ali and Ali, {Mohammed K.} and Fran{\cc}ois Alla and Peter Allebeck and Allen, {Peter J.} and Ubai Alsharif and Elena Alvarez and Nelson Alvis-Guzman and Amankwaa, {Adansi A.} and Amare, {Azmeraw T.} and Ameh, {Emmanuel A.} and Omid Ameli and Heresh Amini and Walid Ammar and Anderson, {Benjamin O.} and Antonio, {Carl Abelardo T} and Palwasha Anwari and {Argeseanu Cunningham}, Solveig and Johan Arnl{\"o}v and {Arsic Arsenijevic}, {Valentina S.} and Al Artaman and Asghar, {Rana J.} and Reza Assadi and Atkins, {Lydia S.} and Charles Atkinson and Avila, {Marco A.} and Baffour Awuah and Alaa Badawi and Bahit, {Maria C.} and Talal Bakfalouni and Kalpana Balakrishnan and Shivanthi Balalla and Balu, {Ravi Kumar} and Amitava Banerjee and Barber, {Ryan M.} and Barker-Collo, {Suzanne L.} and Simon Barquera and Lars Barregard and Barrero, {Lope H.} and Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez and Basto-Abreu, {Ana C.} and Arindam Basu and Sanjay Basu and Basulaiman, {Mohammed O.} and {Batis Ruvalcaba}, Carolina and Justin Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and Tolesa Bekele and Bell, {Michelle L.} and Corina Benjet and Bennett, {Derrick A.} and Habib Benzian and Eduardo Bernab{\'e} and Beyene, {Tariku J.} and Neeraj Bhala and Ashish Bhalla and Bhutta, {Zulfiqar A.} and Boris Bikbov and {Bin Abdulhak}, {Aref A.} and Blore, {Jed D.} and Blyth, {Fiona M.} and Bohensky, {Megan A.} and {Bora Başara}, Berrak and Guilherme Borges and Bornstein, {Natan M.} and Dipan Bose and Soufiane Boufous and Bourne, {Rupert R.} and Michael Brainin and Alexandra Brazinova and Breitborde, {Nicholas J.} and Hermann Brenner and Briggs, {Adam D M} and Broday, {David M.} and Brooks, {Peter M.} and Bruce, {Nigel G.} and Brugha, {Traolach S.} and Bert Brunekreef and Rachelle Buchbinder and Bui, {Linh N.} and Gene Bukhman and Bulloch, {Andrew G.} and Michael Burch and Burney, {Peter G J} and Campos-Nonato, {Ismael R.} and Campuzano, {Julio C.} and Cantoral, {Alejandra J.} and Jack Caravanos and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and Elisabeth Cardis and Carpenter, {David O.} and Valeria Caso and Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela, {Carlos A.} and Castro, {Ruben E.} and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Fiorella Cavalleri and Alanur {\cC}avlin and Chadha, {Vineet K.} and Chang, {Jung Chen} and Charlson, {Fiona J.} and Honglei Chen and Wanqing Chen and Zhengming Chen and Chiang, {Peggy P.} and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and Rajiv Chowdhury and Christophi, {Costas A.} and Chuang, {Ting Wu} and Chugh, {Sumeet S.} and Massimo Cirillo and Cla{\ss}en, {Thomas K D} and Valentina Colistro and Mercedes Colomar and Colquhoun, {Samantha M.} and Contreras, {Alejandra G.} and Cyrus Cooper and Kimberly Cooperrider and Cooper, {Leslie T.} and Josef Coresh and Courville, {Karen J.} and Criqui, {Michael H.} and Lucia Cuevas-Nasu and James Damsere-Derry and Hadi Danawi and Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona and Dargan, {Paul I.} and Adrian Davis and Davitoiu, {Dragos V.} and Anand Dayama and {De Castro}, {E. Filipa} and {De La Cruz-G{\'o}ngora}, Vanessa and {De Leo}, Diego and {De Lima}, Gra{\cc}a and Louisa Degenhardt and {Del Pozo-Cruz}, Borja and Dellavalle, {Robert P.} and Kebede Deribe and Sarah Derrett and {Des Jarlais}, {Don C.} and Muluken Dessalegn and DeVeber, {Gabrielle A.} and Devries, {Karen M.} and Dharmaratne, {Samath D.} and Dherani, {Mukesh K.} and Daniel Dicker and Ding, {Eric L.} and Klara Dokova and Dorsey, {E. Ray} and Driscoll, {Tim R.} and Leilei Duan and Durrani, {Adnan M.} and Ebel, {Beth E.} and Ellenbogen, {Richard G.} and Elshrek, {Yousef M.} and Matthias Endres and Ermakov, {Sergey P.} and Erskine, {Holly E.} and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Saman Fahimi and Faraon, {Emerito Jose A} and Farshad Farzadfar and Fay, {Derek F J} and Feigin, {Valery L.} and Feigl, {Andrea B.} and Fereshtehnejad, {Seyed Mohammad} and Ferrari, {Alize J.} and Ferri, {Cleusa P.} and Flaxman, {Abraham D.} and Fleming, {Thomas D.} and Nataliya Foigt and Foreman, {Kyle J.} and {Fra Paleo}, Urbano and Franklin, {Richard C.} and Belinda Gabbe and Lynne Gaffikin and Emmanuela Gakidou and Amiran Gamkrelidze and Gankp{\'e}, {Fortun{\'e} G.} and Gansevoort, {Ron T.} and Garc{\'i}a-Guerra, {Francisco A.} and Evariste Gasana and Geleijnse, {Johanna M.} and Gessner, {Bradford D.} and Pete Gething and Gibney, {Katherine B.} and Gillum, {Richard F.} and Ginawi, {Ibrahim A M} and Maurice Giroud and Giorgia Giussani and Shifalika Goenka and Ketevan Goginashvili and {Gomez Dantes}, Hector and Philimon Gona and {Gonzalez De Cosio}, Teresita and Dinorah Gonz{\'a}lez-Castell and Gotay, {Carolyn C.} and Atsushi Goto and Gouda, {Hebe N.} and Guerrant, {Richard L.} and Gugnani, {Harish C.} and Francis Guillemin and David Gunnell and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and Guti{\'e}rrez, {Reyna A.} and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Holly Hagan and Maria Hagstromer and Halasa, {Yara A.} and Hamadeh, {Randah R.} and Mouhanad Hammami and Hankey, {Graeme J.} and Yuantao Hao and Harb, {Hilda L.} and Haregu, {Tilahun Nigatu} and Haro, {Josep Maria} and Rasmus Havmoeller and Hay, {Simon I.} and Hedayati, {Mohammad T.} and Heredia-Pi, {Ileana B.} and Lucia Hernandez and Heuton, {Kyle R.} and Pouria Heydarpour and Martha Hijar and Hoek, {Hans W.} and Hoffman, {Howard J.} and Hornberger, {John C.} and H. Hosgood and Hoy, {Damian G.} and Mohamed Hsairi and Guoqing Hu and Howard Hu and Cheng Huang and Huang, {John J.} and Hubbell, {Bryan J.} and Laetitia Huiart and Abdullatif Husseini and Iannarone, {Marissa L.} and Iburg, {Kim M.} and Idrisov, {Bulat T.} and Nayu Ikeda and Kaire Innos and Manami Inoue and Farhad Islami and Samaya Ismayilova and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H.} and Jansen, {Henrica A.} and Jarvis, {Deborah L.} and Jassal, {Simerjot K.} and Alejandra Jauregui and Sudha Jayaraman and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Jensen, {Paul N.} and Vivekanand Jha and Fan Jiang and Guohong Jiang and Ying Jiang and Jonas, {Jost B.} and Knud Juel and Haidong Kan and {Kany Roseline}, {Sidibe S.} and Karam, {Nadim E.} and Andr{\'e} Karch and Karema, {Corine K.} and Ganesan Karthikeyan and Anil Kaul and Norito Kawakami and Kazi, {Dhruv S.} and Kemp, {Andrew H.} and Kengne, {Andre P.} and Andre Keren and Khader, {Yousef S.} and {Ali Hassan Khalifa}, {Shams Eldin} and Khan, {Ejaz A.} and Khang, {Young Ho} and Shahab Khatibzadeh and Irma Khonelidze and Christian Kieling and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Yunjin Kim and Kimokoti, {Ruth W.} and Yohannes Kinfu and Kinge, {Jonas M.} and Kissela, {Brett M.} and Miia Kivipelto and Knibbs, {Luke D.} and Knudsen, {Ann Kristin} and Yoshihiro Kokubo and Kose, {M. Rifat} and Soewarta Kosen and Alexander Kraemer and Michael Kravchenko and Sanjay Krishnaswami and Hans Kromhout and Tiffany Ku and {Kuate Defo}, Barthelemy and {Kucuk Bicer}, Burcu and Kuipers, {Ernst J.} and Chanda Kulkarni and Kulkarni, {Veena S.} and Kumar, {G. Anil} and Kwan, {Gene F.} and Taavi Lai and {Lakshmana Balaji}, Arjun and Ratilal Lalloo and Tea Lallukka and Hilton Lam and Qing Lan and Lansingh, {Van C.} and Larson, {Heidi J.} and Anders Larsson and Laryea, {Dennis O.} and Lavados, {Pablo M.} and Lawrynowicz, {Alicia E.} and Leasher, {Janet L.} and Lee, {Jong Tae} and James Leigh and Ricky Leung and Miriam Levi and Yichong Li and Yongmei Li and Juan Liang and Xiaofeng Liang and Lim, {Stephen S.} and Lindsay, {M. Patrice} and Lipshultz, {Steven E.} and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and Lloyd, {Belinda K.} and Giancarlo Logroscino and London, {Stephanie J.} and Nancy Lopez and Joannie Lortet-Tieulent and Lotufo, {Paulo A.} and Rafael Lozano and Raimundas Lunevicius and Jixiang Ma and Stefan Ma and Machado, {Vasco M P} and MacIntyre, {Michael F.} and Carlos Magis-Rodriguez and Mahdi, {Abbas A.} and Marek Majdan and Reza Malekzadeh and Srikanth Mangalam and Mapoma, {Christopher C.} and Marape Marape and Wagner Marcenes and Margolis, {David J.} and Christopher Margono and Marks, {Guy B.} and Martin, {Randall V.} and Marzan, {Melvin B.} and Mashal, {Mohammad T.} and Felix Masiye and Mason-Jones, {Amanda J.} and Kunihiro Matsushita and Richard Matzopoulos and Mayosi, {Bongani M.} and Mazorodze, {Tasara T.} and McKay, {Abigail C.} and Martin McKee and Abigail McLain and Meaney, {Peter A.} and Catalina Medina and Mehndiratta, {Man Mohan} and Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez and Wubegzier Mekonnen and Melaku, {Yohannes A.} and Michele Meltzer and Memish, {Ziad A.} and Walter Mendoza and Mensah, {George A.} and Atte Meretoja and {Apolinary Mhimbira}, Francis and Renata Micha and Miller, {Ted R.} and Mills, {Edward J.} and Awoke Misganaw and Santosh Mishra and {Mohamed Ibrahim}, Norlinah and Mohammad, {Karzan A.} and Mokdad, {Ali H.} and Mola, {Glen L.} and Lorenzo Monasta and {Monta{\~n}ez Hernandez}, {Julio C.} and Marcella Montico and Moore, {Ami R.} and Lidia Morawska and Rintaro Mori and Joanna Moschandreas and Moturi, {Wilkister N.} and Dariush Mozaffarian and Mueller, {Ulrich O.} and Mitsuru Mukaigawara and Mullany, {Erin C.} and Murthy, {Kinnari S.} and Mohsen Naghavi and Ziad Nahas and Aliya Naheed and Naidoo, {Kovin S.} and Luigi Naldi and Devina Nand and Vinay Nangia and Narayan, {K. M Venkat} and Denis Nash and Bruce Neal and Chakib Nejjari and Neupane, {Sudan P.} and Newton, {Charles R.} and Ngalesoni, {Frida N.} and Ngirabega, {Jean De Dieu} and Grant Nguyen and Nguyen, {Nhung T.} and Nieuwenhuijsen, {Mark J.} and Nisar, {Muhammad I.} and Nogueira, {Jos{\'e} R.} and Nolla, {Joan M.} and Sandra Nolte and Norheim, {Ole F.} and Norman, {Rosana E.} and Bo Norrving and Luke Nyakarahuka and Oh, {In Hwan} and Takayoshi Ohkubo and Olusanya, {Bolajoko O.} and Omer, {Saad B.} and Opio, {John Nelson} and Ricardo Orozco and Pagcatipunan, {Rodolfo S.} and Pain, {Amanda W.} and Pandian, {Jeyaraj D.} and Panelo, {Carlo Irwin A} and Christina Papachristou and Park, {Eun Kee} and Parry, {Charles D.} and {Paternina Caicedo}, {Angel J.} and Patten, {Scott B.} and Paul, {Vinod K.} and Pavlin, {Boris I.} and Neil Pearce and Pedraza, {Lilia S.} and Andrea Pedroza and {Pejin Stokic}, Ljiljana and Ayfer Pekericli and Pereira, {David M.} and Rogelio Perez-Padilla and Fernando Perez-Ruiz and Norberto Perico and Perry, {Samuel A L} and Aslam Pervaiz and Konrad Pesudovs and Peterson, {Carrie B.} and Max Petzold and Phillips, {Michael R.} and Phua, {Hwee Pin} and Dietrich Plass and Dan Poenaru and Polanczyk, {Guilherme V.} and Suzanne Polinder and Pond, {Constance D.} and Pope, {C. Arden} and Daniel Pope and Svetlana Popova and Farshad Pourmalek and John Powles and Dorairaj Prabhakaran and Prasad, {Noela M.} and Qato, {Dima M.} and Quezada, {Amado D.} and Quistberg, {D. Alex A} and Lionel Racap{\'e} and Anwar Rafay and Kazem Rahimi and Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar and {Ur Rahman}, Sajjad and Murugesan Raju and Ivo Rakovac and Rana, {Saleem M.} and Mayuree Rao and Homie Razavi and Reddy, {K. Srinath} and Refaat, {Amany H.} and J{\"u}rgen Rehm and Giuseppe Remuzzi and Ribeiro, {Antonio L.} and Riccio, {Patricia M.} and Lee Richardson and Anne Riederer and Margaret Robinson and Anna Roca and Alina Rodriguez and David Rojas-Rueda and Isabelle Romieu and Luca Ronfani and Robin Room and Nobhojit Roy and Ruhago, {George M.} and Lesley Rushton and Nsanzimana Sabin and Sacco, {Ralph L.} and Sukanta Saha and Ramesh Sahathevan and Sahraian, {Mohammad Ali} and Salomon, {Joshua A.} and Deborah Salvo and Sampson, {Uchechukwu K.} and Sanabria, {Juan R.} and Sanchez, {Luz Maria} and S{\'a}nchez-Pimienta, {Tania G.} and Lidia Sanchez-Riera and Logan Sandar and Santos, {Itamar S.} and Amir Sapkota and Maheswar Satpathy and Saunders, {James E.} and Monika Sawhney and Saylan, {Mete I.} and Peter Scarborough and Schmidt, {J{\"u}rgen C.} and Schneider, {Ione J C} and Ben Sch{\"o}ttker and Schwebel, {David C.} and Scott, {James G.} and Soraya Seedat and Sepanlou, {Sadaf G.} and Berrin Serdar and Servan-Mori, {Edson E.} and Gavin Shaddick and Saeid Shahraz and {Shamah Levy}, Teresa and Siyi Shangguan and Jun She and Sara Sheikhbahaei and Kenji Shibuya and Shin, {Hwashin H.} and Yukito Shinohara and Rahman Shiri and Kawkab Shishani and Ivy Shiue and Sigfusdottir, {Inga D.} and Silberberg, {Donald H.} and Simard, {Edgar P.} and Shireen Sindi and Abhishek Singh and Singh, {Gitanjali M.} and Singh, {Jasvinder A.} and Vegard Skirbekk and Karen Sliwa and Michael Soljak and Samir Soneji and Kjetil S{\o}reide and Sergey Soshnikov and Sposato, {Luciano A.} and Sreeramareddy, {Chandrashekhar T.} and Stapelberg, {Nicolas J C} and Vasiliki Stathopoulou and Nadine Steckling and Stein, {Dan J.} and Stein, {Murray B.} and Natalie Stephens and Heidi St{\"o}ckl and Kurt Straif and Konstantinos Stroumpoulis and Lela Sturua and Sunguya, {Bruno F.} and Soumya Swaminathan and Mamta Swaroop and Sykes, {Bryan L.} and Tabb, {Karen M.} and Ken Takahashi and Talongwa, {Roberto T.} and Nikhil Tandon and David Tanne and Marcel Tanner and Mohammad Tavakkoli and {Te Ao}, {Braden J.} and Teixeira, {Carolina M.} and {T{\'e}llez Rojo}, {Martha M.} and Terkawi, {Abdullah S.} and Texcalac-Sangrador, {Jos{\'e} Luis} and Thackway, {Sarah V.} and Blake Thomson and Thorne-Lyman, {Andrew L.} and Thrift, {Amanda G.} and Thurston, {George D.} and Taavi Tillmann and Myriam Tobollik and Marcello Tonelli and Fotis Topouzis and Towbin, {Jeffrey A.} and Hideaki Toyoshima and Jefferson Traebert and Tran, {Bach X.} and Leonardo Trasande and Matias Trillini and Ulises Trujillo and {Tsala Dimbuene}, Zacharie and Miltiadis Tsilimbaris and Tuzcu, {Emin Murat} and Uchendu, {Uche S.} and Ukwaja, {Kingsley N.} and Uzun, {Selen B.} and {Van De Vijver}, Steven and {Van Dingenen}, Rita and {Van Gool}, {Coen H.} and {Van Os}, Jim and Varakin, {Yuri Y.} and Vasankari, {Tommi J.} and Vasconcelos, {Ana Maria N} and Vavilala, {Monica S.} and Veerman, {Lennert J.} and Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez and N. Venketasubramanian and Lakshmi Vijayakumar and Salvador Villalpando and Violante, {Francesco S.} and {Victorovich Vlassov}, Vasiliy and Vollset, {Stein Emil} and Wagner, {Gregory R.} and Waller, {Stephen G.} and Wallin, {Mitchell T.} and Xia Wan and Haidong Wang and JianLi Wang and Linhong Wang and Wenzhi Wang and Yanping Wang and Warouw, {Tati S.} and Watts, {Charlotte H.} and Scott Weichenthal and Elisabete Weiderpass and Weintraub, {Robert G.} and Andrea Werdecker and Wessells, {K. Ryan} and Ronny Westerman and Whiteford, {Harvey A.} and Wilkinson, {James D.} and Williams, {Hywel C.} and Williams, {Thomas N.} and Woldeyohannes, {Solomon M.} and Wolfe, {Charles D A} and Wong, {John Q.} and Woolf, {Anthony D.} and Wright, {Jonathan L.} and Brittany Wurtz and Gelin Xu and Yan, {Lijing L.} and Gonghuan Yang and Yuichiro Yano and Pengpeng Ye and Muluken Yenesew and Yent{\"u}r, {G{\"o}kalp K.} and Paul Yip and Naohiro Yonemoto and Yoon, {Seok Jun} and Younis, {Mustafa Z.} and Zourkaleini Younoussi and Chuanhua Yu and Zaki, {Maysaa E.} and Yong Zhao and Yingfeng Zheng and Maigeng Zhou and Jun Zhu and Shankuan Zhu and Xiaonong Zou and Zunt, {Joseph R.} and Lopez, {Alan D.} and Theo Vos and Murray, {Christopher J.} and Temesgen, {A. M.}",
year = "2015",
month = "12",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2",
language = "English",
volume = "386",
pages = "2287--2323",
journal = "Lancet",
issn = "0140-6736",
publisher = "TheLancet Publishing Group",
number = "10010",

}

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M, Malekzadeh, R, Mangalam, S, Mapoma, CC, Marape, M, Marcenes, W, Margolis, DJ, Margono, C, Marks, GB, Martin, RV, Marzan, MB, Mashal, MT, Masiye, F, Mason-Jones, AJ, Matsushita, K, Matzopoulos, R, Mayosi, BM, Mazorodze, TT, McKay, AC, McKee, M, McLain, A, Meaney, PA, Medina, C, Mehndiratta, MM, Mejia-Rodriguez, F, Mekonnen, W, Melaku, YA, Meltzer, M, Memish, ZA, Mendoza, W, Mensah, GA, Meretoja, A, Apolinary Mhimbira, F, Micha, R, Miller, TR, Mills, EJ, Misganaw, A, Mishra, S, Mohamed Ibrahim, N, Mohammad, KA, Mokdad, AH, Mola, GL, Monasta, L, Montañez Hernandez, JC, Montico, M, Moore, AR, Morawska, L, Mori, R, Moschandreas, J, Moturi, WN, Mozaffarian, D, Mueller, UO, Mukaigawara, M, Mullany, EC, Murthy, KS, Naghavi, M, Nahas, Z, Naheed, A, Naidoo, KS, Naldi, L, Nand, D, Nangia, V, Narayan, KMV, Nash, D, Neal, B, Nejjari, C, Neupane, SP, Newton, CR, Ngalesoni, FN, Ngirabega, JDD, Nguyen, G, Nguyen, NT, Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ, Nisar, MI, Nogueira, JR, Nolla, JM, Nolte, S, Norheim, OF, 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RL, Saha, S, Sahathevan, R, Sahraian, MA, Salomon, JA, Salvo, D, Sampson, UK, Sanabria, JR, Sanchez, LM, Sánchez-Pimienta, TG, Sanchez-Riera, L, Sandar, L, Santos, IS, Sapkota, A, Satpathy, M, Saunders, JE, Sawhney, M, Saylan, MI, Scarborough, P, Schmidt, JC, Schneider, IJC, Schöttker, B, Schwebel, DC, Scott, JG, Seedat, S, Sepanlou, SG, Serdar, B, Servan-Mori, EE, Shaddick, G, Shahraz, S, Shamah Levy, T, Shangguan, S, She, J, Sheikhbahaei, S, Shibuya, K, Shin, HH, Shinohara, Y, Shiri, R, Shishani, K, Shiue, I, Sigfusdottir, ID, Silberberg, DH, Simard, EP, Sindi, S, Singh, A, Singh, GM, Singh, JA, Skirbekk, V, Sliwa, K, Soljak, M, Soneji, S, Søreide, K, Soshnikov, S, Sposato, LA, Sreeramareddy, CT, Stapelberg, NJC, Stathopoulou, V, Steckling, N, Stein, DJ, Stein, MB, Stephens, N, Stöckl, H, Straif, K, Stroumpoulis, K, Sturua, L, Sunguya, BF, Swaminathan, S, Swaroop, M, Sykes, BL, Tabb, KM, Takahashi, K, Talongwa, RT, Tandon, N, Tanne, D, Tanner, M, Tavakkoli, M, Te Ao, BJ, Teixeira, CM, Téllez Rojo, MM, Terkawi, AS, Texcalac-Sangrador, JL, Thackway, SV, Thomson, B, Thorne-Lyman, AL, Thrift, AG, Thurston, GD, Tillmann, T, Tobollik, M, Tonelli, M, Topouzis, F, Towbin, JA, Toyoshima, H, Traebert, J, Tran, BX, Trasande, L, Trillini, M, Trujillo, U, Tsala Dimbuene, Z, Tsilimbaris, M, Tuzcu, EM, Uchendu, US, Ukwaja, KN, Uzun, SB, Van De Vijver, S, Van Dingenen, R, Van Gool, CH, Van Os, J, Varakin, YY, Vasankari, TJ, Vasconcelos, AMN, Vavilala, MS, Veerman, LJ, Velasquez-Melendez, G, Venketasubramanian, N, Vijayakumar, L, Villalpando, S, Violante, FS, Victorovich Vlassov, V, Vollset, SE, Wagner, GR, Waller, SG, Wallin, MT, Wan, X, Wang, H, Wang, J, Wang, L, Wang, W, Wang, Y, Warouw, TS, Watts, CH, Weichenthal, S, Weiderpass, E, Weintraub, RG, Werdecker, A, Wessells, KR, Westerman, R, Whiteford, HA, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, HC, Williams, TN, Woldeyohannes, SM, Wolfe, CDA, Wong, JQ, Woolf, AD, Wright, JL, Wurtz, B, Xu, G, Yan, LL, Yang, G, Yano, Y, Ye, P, Yenesew, M, 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Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. / Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H. Ross; Bachman, Victoria F.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M.; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J.; Astha, K. C.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Puthenpurakal Abraham, Jerry; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K.; Adsuar, José C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Al Lami, Faris H.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K.; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S.; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Bora Başara, Berrak; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Campuzano, Julio C.; Cantoral, Alejandra J.; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas K D; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De Castro, E. Filipa; De La Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; De Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; DeVeber, Gabrielle A.; Devries, Karen M.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; García-Guerra, Francisco A.; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez De Cosio, Teresita; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Hubbell, Bryan J.; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jansen, Henrica A.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kany Roseline, Sidibe S.; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K.; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Ali Hassan Khalifa, Shams Eldin; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khang, Young Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M. Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O.; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Martin, Randall V.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McKay, Abigail C.; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Apolinary Mhimbira, Francis; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C.; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Ngirabega, Jean De Dieu; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nogueira, José R.; Nolla, Joan M.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pedroza, Andrea; Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B. (Editor); Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D.; Pope, C. Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima M.; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Ur Rahman, Sajjad; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C.; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Shamah Levy, Teresa; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J.; Teixeira, Carolina M.; Téllez Rojo, Martha M.; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Tsala Dimbuene, Zacharie; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uzun, Selen B.; Van De Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; Van Gool, Coen H.; Van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Victorovich Vlassov, Vasiliy; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Watts, Charlotte H.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J.; Temesgen, A. M.

In: Lancet, Vol. 386, No. 10010, 05.12.2015, p. 2287-2323.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013

T2 - A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

AU - Alexander, Lily

AU - Anderson, H. Ross

AU - Bachman, Victoria F.

AU - Biryukov, Stan

AU - Brauer, Michael

AU - Burnett, Richard

AU - Casey, Daniel

AU - Coates, Matthew M.

AU - Cohen, Aaron

AU - Delwiche, Kristen

AU - Estep, Kara

AU - Frostad, Joseph J.

AU - Astha, K. C.

AU - Kyu, Hmwe H.

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - Ng, Marie

AU - Slepak, Erica Leigh

AU - Thomas, Bernadette A.

AU - Wagner, Joseph

AU - Aasvang, Gunn Marit

AU - Abbafati, Cristiana

AU - Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse

AU - Abd-Allah, Foad

AU - Abera, Semaw F.

AU - Aboyans, Victor

AU - Abraham, Biju

AU - Puthenpurakal Abraham, Jerry

AU - Abubakar, Ibrahim

AU - Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E

AU - Aburto, Tania C.

AU - Achoki, Tom

AU - Adelekan, Ademola

AU - Adofo, Koranteng

AU - Adou, Arsène K.

AU - Adsuar, José C.

AU - Afshin, Ashkan

AU - Agardh, Emilie E.

AU - Al Khabouri, Mazin J.

AU - Al Lami, Faris H.

AU - Alam, Sayed Saidul

AU - Alasfoor, Deena

AU - Albittar, Mohammed I.

AU - Alegretti, Miguel A.

AU - Aleman, Alicia V.

AU - Alemu, Zewdie A.

AU - Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael

AU - Alhabib, Samia

AU - Ali, Raghib

AU - Ali, Mohammed K.

AU - Alla, François

AU - Allebeck, Peter

AU - Allen, Peter J.

AU - Alsharif, Ubai

AU - Alvarez, Elena

AU - Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

AU - Amankwaa, Adansi A.

AU - Amare, Azmeraw T.

AU - Ameh, Emmanuel A.

AU - Ameli, Omid

AU - Amini, Heresh

AU - Ammar, Walid

AU - Anderson, Benjamin O.

AU - Antonio, Carl Abelardo T

AU - Anwari, Palwasha

AU - Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig

AU - Arnlöv, Johan

AU - Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S.

AU - Artaman, Al

AU - Asghar, Rana J.

AU - Assadi, Reza

AU - Atkins, Lydia S.

AU - Atkinson, Charles

AU - Avila, Marco A.

AU - Awuah, Baffour

AU - Badawi, Alaa

AU - Bahit, Maria C.

AU - Bakfalouni, Talal

AU - Balakrishnan, Kalpana

AU - Balalla, Shivanthi

AU - Balu, Ravi Kumar

AU - Banerjee, Amitava

AU - Barber, Ryan M.

AU - Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

AU - Barquera, Simon

AU - Barregard, Lars

AU - Barrero, Lope H.

AU - Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

AU - Basto-Abreu, Ana C.

AU - Basu, Arindam

AU - Basu, Sanjay

AU - Basulaiman, Mohammed O.

AU - Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina

AU - Beardsley, Justin

AU - Bedi, Neeraj

AU - Bekele, Tolesa

AU - Bell, Michelle L.

AU - Benjet, Corina

AU - Bennett, Derrick A.

AU - Benzian, Habib

AU - Bernabé, Eduardo

AU - Beyene, Tariku J.

AU - Bhala, Neeraj

AU - Bhalla, Ashish

AU - Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

AU - Bikbov, Boris

AU - Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.

AU - Blore, Jed D.

AU - Blyth, Fiona M.

AU - Bohensky, Megan A.

AU - Bora Başara, Berrak

AU - Borges, Guilherme

AU - Bornstein, Natan M.

AU - Bose, Dipan

AU - Boufous, Soufiane

AU - Bourne, Rupert R.

AU - Brainin, Michael

AU - Brazinova, Alexandra

AU - Breitborde, Nicholas J.

AU - Brenner, Hermann

AU - Briggs, Adam D M

AU - Broday, David M.

AU - Brooks, Peter M.

AU - Bruce, Nigel G.

AU - Brugha, Traolach S.

AU - Brunekreef, Bert

AU - Buchbinder, Rachelle

AU - Bui, Linh N.

AU - Bukhman, Gene

AU - Bulloch, Andrew G.

AU - Burch, Michael

AU - Burney, Peter G J

AU - Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.

AU - Campuzano, Julio C.

AU - Cantoral, Alejandra J.

AU - Caravanos, Jack

AU - Cárdenas, Rosario

AU - Cardis, Elisabeth

AU - Carpenter, David O.

AU - Caso, Valeria

AU - Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.

AU - Castro, Ruben E.

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - Cavalleri, Fiorella

AU - Çavlin, Alanur

AU - Chadha, Vineet K.

AU - Chang, Jung Chen

AU - Charlson, Fiona J.

AU - Chen, Honglei

AU - Chen, Wanqing

AU - Chen, Zhengming

AU - Chiang, Peggy P.

AU - Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel

AU - Chowdhury, Rajiv

AU - Christophi, Costas A.

AU - Chuang, Ting Wu

AU - Chugh, Sumeet S.

AU - Cirillo, Massimo

AU - Claßen, Thomas K D

AU - Colistro, Valentina

AU - Colomar, Mercedes

AU - Colquhoun, Samantha M.

AU - Contreras, Alejandra G.

AU - Cooper, Cyrus

AU - Cooperrider, Kimberly

AU - Cooper, Leslie T.

AU - Coresh, Josef

AU - Courville, Karen J.

AU - Criqui, Michael H.

AU - Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia

AU - Damsere-Derry, James

AU - Danawi, Hadi

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Dandona, Rakhi

AU - Dargan, Paul I.

AU - Davis, Adrian

AU - Davitoiu, Dragos V.

AU - Dayama, Anand

AU - De Castro, E. Filipa

AU - De La Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa

AU - De Leo, Diego

AU - De Lima, Graça

AU - Degenhardt, Louisa

AU - Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja

AU - Dellavalle, Robert P.

AU - Deribe, Kebede

AU - Derrett, Sarah

AU - Des Jarlais, Don C.

AU - Dessalegn, Muluken

AU - DeVeber, Gabrielle A.

AU - Devries, Karen M.

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath D.

AU - Dherani, Mukesh K.

AU - Dicker, Daniel

AU - Ding, Eric L.

AU - Dokova, Klara

AU - Dorsey, E. Ray

AU - Driscoll, Tim R.

AU - Duan, Leilei

AU - Durrani, Adnan M.

AU - Ebel, Beth E.

AU - Ellenbogen, Richard G.

AU - Elshrek, Yousef M.

AU - Endres, Matthias

AU - Ermakov, Sergey P.

AU - Erskine, Holly E.

AU - Eshrati, Babak

AU - Esteghamati, Alireza

AU - Fahimi, Saman

AU - Faraon, Emerito Jose A

AU - Farzadfar, Farshad

AU - Fay, Derek F J

AU - Feigin, Valery L.

AU - Feigl, Andrea B.

AU - Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad

AU - Ferrari, Alize J.

AU - Ferri, Cleusa P.

AU - Flaxman, Abraham D.

AU - Fleming, Thomas D.

AU - Foigt, Nataliya

AU - Foreman, Kyle J.

AU - Fra Paleo, Urbano

AU - Franklin, Richard C.

AU - Gabbe, Belinda

AU - Gaffikin, Lynne

AU - Gakidou, Emmanuela

AU - Gamkrelidze, Amiran

AU - Gankpé, Fortuné G.

AU - Gansevoort, Ron T.

AU - García-Guerra, Francisco A.

AU - Gasana, Evariste

AU - Geleijnse, Johanna M.

AU - Gessner, Bradford D.

AU - Gething, Pete

AU - Gibney, Katherine B.

AU - Gillum, Richard F.

AU - Ginawi, Ibrahim A M

AU - Giroud, Maurice

AU - Giussani, Giorgia

AU - Goenka, Shifalika

AU - Goginashvili, Ketevan

AU - Gomez Dantes, Hector

AU - Gona, Philimon

AU - Gonzalez De Cosio, Teresita

AU - González-Castell, Dinorah

AU - Gotay, Carolyn C.

AU - Goto, Atsushi

AU - Gouda, Hebe N.

AU - Guerrant, Richard L.

AU - Gugnani, Harish C.

AU - Guillemin, Francis

AU - Gunnell, David

AU - Gupta, Rahul

AU - Gupta, Rajeev

AU - Gutiérrez, Reyna A.

AU - Hafezi-Nejad, Nima

AU - Hagan, Holly

AU - Hagstromer, Maria

AU - Halasa, Yara A.

AU - Hamadeh, Randah R.

AU - Hammami, Mouhanad

AU - Hankey, Graeme J.

AU - Hao, Yuantao

AU - Harb, Hilda L.

AU - Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu

AU - Haro, Josep Maria

AU - Havmoeller, Rasmus

AU - Hay, Simon I.

AU - Hedayati, Mohammad T.

AU - Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.

AU - Hernandez, Lucia

AU - Heuton, Kyle R.

AU - Heydarpour, Pouria

AU - Hijar, Martha

AU - Hoek, Hans W.

AU - Hoffman, Howard J.

AU - Hornberger, John C.

AU - Hosgood, H.

AU - Hoy, Damian G.

AU - Hsairi, Mohamed

AU - Hu, Guoqing

AU - Hu, Howard

AU - Huang, Cheng

AU - Huang, John J.

AU - Hubbell, Bryan J.

AU - Huiart, Laetitia

AU - Husseini, Abdullatif

AU - Iannarone, Marissa L.

AU - Iburg, Kim M.

AU - Idrisov, Bulat T.

AU - Ikeda, Nayu

AU - Innos, Kaire

AU - Inoue, Manami

AU - Islami, Farhad

AU - Ismayilova, Samaya

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

AU - Jansen, Henrica A.

AU - Jarvis, Deborah L.

AU - Jassal, Simerjot K.

AU - Jauregui, Alejandra

AU - Jayaraman, Sudha

AU - Jeemon, Panniyammakal

AU - Jensen, Paul N.

AU - Jha, Vivekanand

AU - Jiang, Fan

AU - Jiang, Guohong

AU - Jiang, Ying

AU - Jonas, Jost B.

AU - Juel, Knud

AU - Kan, Haidong

AU - Kany Roseline, Sidibe S.

AU - Karam, Nadim E.

AU - Karch, André

AU - Karema, Corine K.

AU - Karthikeyan, Ganesan

AU - Kaul, Anil

AU - Kawakami, Norito

AU - Kazi, Dhruv S.

AU - Kemp, Andrew H.

AU - Kengne, Andre P.

AU - Keren, Andre

AU - Khader, Yousef S.

AU - Ali Hassan Khalifa, Shams Eldin

AU - Khan, Ejaz A.

AU - Khang, Young Ho

AU - Khatibzadeh, Shahab

AU - Khonelidze, Irma

AU - Kieling, Christian

AU - Kim, Daniel

AU - Kim, Sungroul

AU - Kim, Yunjin

AU - Kimokoti, Ruth W.

AU - Kinfu, Yohannes

AU - Kinge, Jonas M.

AU - Kissela, Brett M.

AU - Kivipelto, Miia

AU - Knibbs, Luke D.

AU - Knudsen, Ann Kristin

AU - Kokubo, Yoshihiro

AU - Kose, M. Rifat

AU - Kosen, Soewarta

AU - Kraemer, Alexander

AU - Kravchenko, Michael

AU - Krishnaswami, Sanjay

AU - Kromhout, Hans

AU - Ku, Tiffany

AU - Kuate Defo, Barthelemy

AU - Kucuk Bicer, Burcu

AU - Kuipers, Ernst J.

AU - Kulkarni, Chanda

AU - Kulkarni, Veena S.

AU - Kumar, G. Anil

AU - Kwan, Gene F.

AU - Lai, Taavi

AU - Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun

AU - Lalloo, Ratilal

AU - Lallukka, Tea

AU - Lam, Hilton

AU - Lan, Qing

AU - Lansingh, Van C.

AU - Larson, Heidi J.

AU - Larsson, Anders

AU - Laryea, Dennis O.

AU - Lavados, Pablo M.

AU - Lawrynowicz, Alicia E.

AU - Leasher, Janet L.

AU - Lee, Jong Tae

AU - Leigh, James

AU - Leung, Ricky

AU - Levi, Miriam

AU - Li, Yichong

AU - Li, Yongmei

AU - Liang, Juan

AU - Liang, Xiaofeng

AU - Lim, Stephen S.

AU - Lindsay, M. Patrice

AU - Lipshultz, Steven E.

AU - Liu, Shiwei

AU - Liu, Yang

AU - Lloyd, Belinda K.

AU - Logroscino, Giancarlo

AU - London, Stephanie J.

AU - Lopez, Nancy

AU - Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie

AU - Lotufo, Paulo A.

AU - Lozano, Rafael

AU - Lunevicius, Raimundas

AU - Ma, Jixiang

AU - Ma, Stefan

AU - Machado, Vasco M P

AU - MacIntyre, Michael F.

AU - Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

AU - Mahdi, Abbas A.

AU - Majdan, Marek

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Mangalam, Srikanth

AU - Mapoma, Christopher C.

AU - Marape, Marape

AU - Marcenes, Wagner

AU - Margolis, David J.

AU - Margono, Christopher

AU - Marks, Guy B.

AU - Martin, Randall V.

AU - Marzan, Melvin B.

AU - Mashal, Mohammad T.

AU - Masiye, Felix

AU - Mason-Jones, Amanda J.

AU - Matsushita, Kunihiro

AU - Matzopoulos, Richard

AU - Mayosi, Bongani M.

AU - Mazorodze, Tasara T.

AU - McKay, Abigail C.

AU - McKee, Martin

AU - McLain, Abigail

AU - Meaney, Peter A.

AU - Medina, Catalina

AU - Mehndiratta, Man Mohan

AU - Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola

AU - Mekonnen, Wubegzier

AU - Melaku, Yohannes A.

AU - Meltzer, Michele

AU - Memish, Ziad A.

AU - Mendoza, Walter

AU - Mensah, George A.

AU - Meretoja, Atte

AU - Apolinary Mhimbira, Francis

AU - Micha, Renata

AU - Miller, Ted R.

AU - Mills, Edward J.

AU - Misganaw, Awoke

AU - Mishra, Santosh

AU - Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah

AU - Mohammad, Karzan A.

AU - Mokdad, Ali H.

AU - Mola, Glen L.

AU - Monasta, Lorenzo

AU - Montañez Hernandez, Julio C.

AU - Montico, Marcella

AU - Moore, Ami R.

AU - Morawska, Lidia

AU - Mori, Rintaro

AU - Moschandreas, Joanna

AU - Moturi, Wilkister N.

AU - Mozaffarian, Dariush

AU - Mueller, Ulrich O.

AU - Mukaigawara, Mitsuru

AU - Mullany, Erin C.

AU - Murthy, Kinnari S.

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Nahas, Ziad

AU - Naheed, Aliya

AU - Naidoo, Kovin S.

AU - Naldi, Luigi

AU - Nand, Devina

AU - Nangia, Vinay

AU - Narayan, K. M Venkat

AU - Nash, Denis

AU - Neal, Bruce

AU - Nejjari, Chakib

AU - Neupane, Sudan P.

AU - Newton, Charles R.

AU - Ngalesoni, Frida N.

AU - Ngirabega, Jean De Dieu

AU - Nguyen, Grant

AU - Nguyen, Nhung T.

AU - Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

AU - Nisar, Muhammad I.

AU - Nogueira, José R.

AU - Nolla, Joan M.

AU - Nolte, Sandra

AU - Norheim, Ole F.

AU - Norman, Rosana E.

AU - Norrving, Bo

AU - Nyakarahuka, Luke

AU - Oh, In Hwan

AU - Ohkubo, Takayoshi

AU - Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

AU - Omer, Saad B.

AU - Opio, John Nelson

AU - Orozco, Ricardo

AU - Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S.

AU - Pain, Amanda W.

AU - Pandian, Jeyaraj D.

AU - Panelo, Carlo Irwin A

AU - Papachristou, Christina

AU - Park, Eun Kee

AU - Parry, Charles D.

AU - Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.

AU - Patten, Scott B.

AU - Paul, Vinod K.

AU - Pavlin, Boris I.

AU - Pearce, Neil

AU - Pedraza, Lilia S.

AU - Pedroza, Andrea

AU - Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana

AU - Pekericli, Ayfer

AU - Pereira, David M.

AU - Perez-Padilla, Rogelio

AU - Perez-Ruiz, Fernando

AU - Perico, Norberto

AU - Perry, Samuel A L

AU - Pervaiz, Aslam

AU - Pesudovs, Konrad

AU - Petzold, Max

AU - Phillips, Michael R.

AU - Phua, Hwee Pin

AU - Plass, Dietrich

AU - Poenaru, Dan

AU - Polanczyk, Guilherme V.

AU - Polinder, Suzanne

AU - Pond, Constance D.

AU - Pope, C. Arden

AU - Pope, Daniel

AU - Popova, Svetlana

AU - Pourmalek, Farshad

AU - Powles, John

AU - Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

AU - Prasad, Noela M.

AU - Qato, Dima M.

AU - Quezada, Amado D.

AU - Quistberg, D. Alex A

AU - Racapé, Lionel

AU - Rafay, Anwar

AU - Rahimi, Kazem

AU - Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

AU - Ur Rahman, Sajjad

AU - Raju, Murugesan

AU - Rakovac, Ivo

AU - Rana, Saleem M.

AU - Rao, Mayuree

AU - Razavi, Homie

AU - Reddy, K. Srinath

AU - Refaat, Amany H.

AU - Rehm, Jürgen

AU - Remuzzi, Giuseppe

AU - Ribeiro, Antonio L.

AU - Riccio, Patricia M.

AU - Richardson, Lee

AU - Riederer, Anne

AU - Robinson, Margaret

AU - Roca, Anna

AU - Rodriguez, Alina

AU - Rojas-Rueda, David

AU - Romieu, Isabelle

AU - Ronfani, Luca

AU - Room, Robin

AU - Roy, Nobhojit

AU - Ruhago, George M.

AU - Rushton, Lesley

AU - Sabin, Nsanzimana

AU - Sacco, Ralph L.

AU - Saha, Sukanta

AU - Sahathevan, Ramesh

AU - Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

AU - Salomon, Joshua A.

AU - Salvo, Deborah

AU - Sampson, Uchechukwu K.

AU - Sanabria, Juan R.

AU - Sanchez, Luz Maria

AU - Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G.

AU - Sanchez-Riera, Lidia

AU - Sandar, Logan

AU - Santos, Itamar S.

AU - Sapkota, Amir

AU - Satpathy, Maheswar

AU - Saunders, James E.

AU - Sawhney, Monika

AU - Saylan, Mete I.

AU - Scarborough, Peter

AU - Schmidt, Jürgen C.

AU - Schneider, Ione J C

AU - Schöttker, Ben

AU - Schwebel, David C.

AU - Scott, James G.

AU - Seedat, Soraya

AU - Sepanlou, Sadaf G.

AU - Serdar, Berrin

AU - Servan-Mori, Edson E.

AU - Shaddick, Gavin

AU - Shahraz, Saeid

AU - Shamah Levy, Teresa

AU - Shangguan, Siyi

AU - She, Jun

AU - Sheikhbahaei, Sara

AU - Shibuya, Kenji

AU - Shin, Hwashin H.

AU - Shinohara, Yukito

AU - Shiri, Rahman

AU - Shishani, Kawkab

AU - Shiue, Ivy

AU - Sigfusdottir, Inga D.

AU - Silberberg, Donald H.

AU - Simard, Edgar P.

AU - Sindi, Shireen

AU - Singh, Abhishek

AU - Singh, Gitanjali M.

AU - Singh, Jasvinder A.

AU - Skirbekk, Vegard

AU - Sliwa, Karen

AU - Soljak, Michael

AU - Soneji, Samir

AU - Søreide, Kjetil

AU - Soshnikov, Sergey

AU - Sposato, Luciano A.

AU - Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.

AU - Stapelberg, Nicolas J C

AU - Stathopoulou, Vasiliki

AU - Steckling, Nadine

AU - Stein, Dan J.

AU - Stein, Murray B.

AU - Stephens, Natalie

AU - Stöckl, Heidi

AU - Straif, Kurt

AU - Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos

AU - Sturua, Lela

AU - Sunguya, Bruno F.

AU - Swaminathan, Soumya

AU - Swaroop, Mamta

AU - Sykes, Bryan L.

AU - Tabb, Karen M.

AU - Takahashi, Ken

AU - Talongwa, Roberto T.

AU - Tandon, Nikhil

AU - Tanne, David

AU - Tanner, Marcel

AU - Tavakkoli, Mohammad

AU - Te Ao, Braden J.

AU - Teixeira, Carolina M.

AU - Téllez Rojo, Martha M.

AU - Terkawi, Abdullah S.

AU - Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis

AU - Thackway, Sarah V.

AU - Thomson, Blake

AU - Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.

AU - Thrift, Amanda G.

AU - Thurston, George D.

AU - Tillmann, Taavi

AU - Tobollik, Myriam

AU - Tonelli, Marcello

AU - Topouzis, Fotis

AU - Towbin, Jeffrey A.

AU - Toyoshima, Hideaki

AU - Traebert, Jefferson

AU - Tran, Bach X.

AU - Trasande, Leonardo

AU - Trillini, Matias

AU - Trujillo, Ulises

AU - Tsala Dimbuene, Zacharie

AU - Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis

AU - Tuzcu, Emin Murat

AU - Uchendu, Uche S.

AU - Ukwaja, Kingsley N.

AU - Uzun, Selen B.

AU - Van De Vijver, Steven

AU - Van Dingenen, Rita

AU - Van Gool, Coen H.

AU - Van Os, Jim

AU - Varakin, Yuri Y.

AU - Vasankari, Tommi J.

AU - Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N

AU - Vavilala, Monica S.

AU - Veerman, Lennert J.

AU - Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

AU - Venketasubramanian, N.

AU - Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

AU - Villalpando, Salvador

AU - Violante, Francesco S.

AU - Victorovich Vlassov, Vasiliy

AU - Vollset, Stein Emil

AU - Wagner, Gregory R.

AU - Waller, Stephen G.

AU - Wallin, Mitchell T.

AU - Wan, Xia

AU - Wang, Haidong

AU - Wang, JianLi

AU - Wang, Linhong

AU - Wang, Wenzhi

AU - Wang, Yanping

AU - Warouw, Tati S.

AU - Watts, Charlotte H.

AU - Weichenthal, Scott

AU - Weiderpass, Elisabete

AU - Weintraub, Robert G.

AU - Werdecker, Andrea

AU - Wessells, K. Ryan

AU - Westerman, Ronny

AU - Whiteford, Harvey A.

AU - Wilkinson, James D.

AU - Williams, Hywel C.

AU - Williams, Thomas N.

AU - Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.

AU - Wolfe, Charles D A

AU - Wong, John Q.

AU - Woolf, Anthony D.

AU - Wright, Jonathan L.

AU - Wurtz, Brittany

AU - Xu, Gelin

AU - Yan, Lijing L.

AU - Yang, Gonghuan

AU - Yano, Yuichiro

AU - Ye, Pengpeng

AU - Yenesew, Muluken

AU - Yentür, Gökalp K.

AU - Yip, Paul

AU - Yonemoto, Naohiro

AU - Yoon, Seok Jun

AU - Younis, Mustafa Z.

AU - Younoussi, Zourkaleini

AU - Yu, Chuanhua

AU - Zaki, Maysaa E.

AU - Zhao, Yong

AU - Zheng, Yingfeng

AU - Zhou, Maigeng

AU - Zhu, Jun

AU - Zhu, Shankuan

AU - Zou, Xiaonong

AU - Zunt, Joseph R.

AU - Lopez, Alan D.

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Murray, Christopher J.

AU - Temesgen, A. M.

A2 - Peterson, Carrie B.

PY - 2015/12/5

Y1 - 2015/12/5

N2 - Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian metaregression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

AB - Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian metaregression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2

DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2

M3 - Journal article

VL - 386

SP - 2287

EP - 2323

JO - Lancet

JF - Lancet

SN - 0140-6736

IS - 10010

ER -