Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Aalborg University ( AAU grant 771107 ).
It is not surprising that GFDIs increase the sustainability-orientation of pure green players, that is MNEs focused specifically on environmental technologies. It confirms the idea that any type of FDI supports MNE innovativeness (Amendolagine et al., 2018). Since the pure players in our sample are focused on green innovation, this effect is expected. However, our finding that GFDIs increase the overall sustainability focus in multi-technology corporations, which constitute the bulk of our sample, is novel. In particular, we show that GFDIs increase green specialization in these firms. Given that the world's largest and most influential manufacturers are multi-technology firms, this insight is not trivial and is good news from a green transformation perspective. If large MNEs are increasingly focusing their innovation activities on making green technologies more efficient, affordable and accessible, their contribution to the green transformation will be remarkable.This research was supported by Aalborg University (AAU grant 771107).
- Foreign direct investments
- Global connectedness
- Green innovation
- Multinational enterprises
- Renewable energy
- Sustainability transition