Helicobacter cinaedi bacteraemia secondary to enterocolitis in an immunocompetent patient

Sofie Larsen Rasmussen, Iben Ørsted, Irene Harder Tarpgaard, Hans Linde Nielsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Helicobacter cinaedi are motile, gram-negative spiral rods with a natural reservoir in the intestinal tract of hamsters and rhesus monkeys. In humans, H. cinaedi has been reported in different human infections like fever, abdominal pain, gastroenteritis, proctitis, diarrhoea, erysipelas, cellulitis, arthritis, and neonatal meningitis typically diagnosed by positive blood cultures. Even though H. cinaedi has been detected from human blood and stool the entry of H. cinaedi into the blood stream was undocumented until quite recently. The use of pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated that stool- and blood-derived H. cinaedi strains were consistent. Case presentation: Here, we describe a rare Danish case of H. cinaedi bacteraemia in an immunocompetent 44-year-old male with diarrhoea. We isolated H. cinaedi from a blood culture taken at admission, and from a FecalSwab taken at day six despite ongoing antibiotic therapy. Next, we made a genetic comparison of both isolates by use of Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)- and Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-analysis. The two isolates were identical with zero SNPs and by use of MLST the isolate was identified as a novel ST20, confirming previous data of the intestinal tract as a route of H. cinaedi bacteraemia. The results of our AST showed a resistance pattern with higher MICs for ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin than for ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, and imipenem. The patient was cured with targeted therapy with pivampicillin; however, the primary source of transmission was unknown. Conclusions: In conclusion, this case of H. cinaedi bacteraemia secondary to enterocolitis in an immunocompetent patient provide clear evidence that one route of infection occurs through translocation from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream. Helicobacter cinaedi from blood and faeces were identical with a novel ST20, resistant to ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin however, the patient was cured with oral pivampicillin.

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
JournalGut Pathogens
Issue number1
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2021


  • Bacteraemia
  • Enterocolitis
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Helicobacter cinaedi
  • MLST
  • SNP-analysis


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