Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

Qobad Shafiee, Tomislav Dragicevic, Juan Carlos Vasquez, Josep M. Guerrero

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

180 Citations (Scopus)
591 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a distributed hierarchical control framework to ensure reliable operation of dc Microgrid (MG) clusters. In this hierarchy, primary control is used to regulate the common bus voltage inside each MG locally. An adaptive droop method is proposed for this level which determines droop coefficients according to the state-of-charge (SOC) of batteries automatically. A small signal model is developed to investigate effects of the system parameters, constant power loads as well as line impedance between the MGs on stability of these systems. In the secondary level, a distributed consensus-based voltage regulator is introduced to eliminate the average voltage deviation over the MGs. This distributed averaging method allows the power flow control between the MGs to be achieved at the same time, as it can be accomplished only at the cost of having voltage deviation inside the system. Another distributed policy is employed then to regulate the power flow among the MGs according to their local SOCs. The proposed distributed controllers on each MG communicate with only the neighbor MGs through a communication infrastructure. Finally, the small signal model is expanded for dc MG clusters with all the proposed control loops. The effectiveness of proposed hierarchical scheme is verified through detailed hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)922-933
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014



  • DC microgrid
  • Power flow control
  • Voltage control
  • Distributed control
  • Stability analysis
  • Adaptive droop
  • Hierarchical control

Cite this