How can we help? Towards a design framework for performance-accommodation mechanisms for users struggling with input

Ingeborg Goll Rossau, Rasmus Bugge Skammelsen , Jedrzej Czapla, Bastian Ilsø Hougaard, Hendrik Knoche, Mads Rovsing Jochumsen

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

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To reduce frustration while performing no-risk tasks (e.g. in training and games) for BCI users, we propose increasing their perceived level of control through fabricated input - system-generated positive task outcomes. Two surrogate BCI studies injected fabricated input creating additional positive task outcomes to a 50\% baseline. Users' perceived control increased significantly compared to the 50\% baseline. In turn, frustration levels decreased.
Fabricated input worked equally well in a game story context that provided an emotional stake in the protagonist's success and a simpler task lacking such incentives. People’s number of input attempts determined perceived control more than our controlled ratios of positive to negative task outcomes.
Delays between users’ input attempts and subsequent fabricated inputs further moderated their perceived control.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI PLAY 2021 - Extended Abstracts of the 2021 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play
Number of pages7
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Publication date18 Oct 2021
ISBN (Electronic)9781450383561
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2021
EventCHI PLAY 2021 - Virtual
Duration: 18 Oct 202121 Oct 2021


ConferenceCHI PLAY 2021
Internet address


  • Game balancing
  • Game design
  • Performance-accommodation mechanisms
  • Player experience
  • Video games

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