Hybrid Switchable Phased Array with p-i-n Diodes for 5G Mobile Terminals

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review


This article proposes a compact hybrid beam-switchable phased array, with simple structure, high gain and large coverage in the mm-wave band, for next generation mobile handsets. Four reconfigurable antennas are selected as array elements, consisting of two monopoles, placed on both sides of the short clearance of 3 mm, fed by SIW. Each array element has three p-i-n diodes controlled working modes, which generate three switchable radiation patterns, two broadside, by switching on either the top or the bottom monopole, and one endfire, given by all the p-i-n diodes in off state. While the beam-switching is realized in the φ plane, the beam-scanning is achieved in the θ plane through progressive phase shifts. The array has -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 3 GHz from 27 to 30 GHz, which is a portion of the 5G spectrum. Simulations including the proposed hybrid antenna system, placed on the top left corner of a mobile phone PCB, prove that the three switchable beams cover the angle range of ±75° in elevation, while the scan angle of ±30° in azimuth is covered by beam-scanning, obtaining overall 3D coverage with realized gain higher than 7 dBi at 28 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)
Number of pages5
Publication date22 Mar 2021
Article number9411397
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-8845-4
ISBN (Electronic)978-88-31299-02-2
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2021
EventThe 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation - Düsseldorf, Germany
Duration: 22 Mar 202126 Mar 2021


ConferenceThe 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation


  • Mobile terminal antenna
  • beam-switching antenna array
  • phased antenna array
  • 3D coverage
  • high gain


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