Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil: Effects of reaction temperature and aqueous phase recirculation

Zhe Zhu, Lasse Rosendahl, Saqib Toor, Donghong Yu, Guanyi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

127 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio-crude oil production. Results showed that low temperature favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 34.9 wt% at 300 C. Contrarily, at high temperature, the bio-crude oil had better qualities in terms of less oxygen content and higher heating values (HHVs). The compounds identified in bio-crude oil were mainly phenolics, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols, among which the relative contents of phenolics and carboxylic acids decreased with increasing temperature. In the recirculation studies, bio-crude yield was enhanced gradually with aqueous phase addition at 300 C, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Energy
Volume137
Pages (from-to)183–192
Number of pages10
ISSN0306-2619
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015

Fingerprint

Straw
Liquefaction
liquefaction
barley
straw
crude oil
Crude oil
temperature
carboxylic acid
Carboxylic acids
oil production
Temperature
heating
Heating
aldehyde
Aldehydes
effect
alcohol
Wastewater
Alcohols

Keywords

  • Hydrothermal liquefaction
  • Barley straw
  • Bio-crude oil
  • Aqueous phase
  • Recirculation

Cite this

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title = "Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil: Effects of reaction temperature and aqueous phase recirculation",
abstract = "Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio-crude oil production. Results showed that low temperature favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 34.9 wt{\%} at 300 C. Contrarily, at high temperature, the bio-crude oil had better qualities in terms of less oxygen content and higher heating values (HHVs). The compounds identified in bio-crude oil were mainly phenolics, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols, among which the relative contents of phenolics and carboxylic acids decreased with increasing temperature. In the recirculation studies, bio-crude yield was enhanced gradually with aqueous phase addition at 300 C, and reached 38.4 wt{\%} after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase.",
keywords = "Hydrothermal liquefaction, Barley straw, Bio-crude oil, Aqueous phase, Recirculation",
author = "Zhe Zhu and Lasse Rosendahl and Saqib Toor and Donghong Yu and Guanyi Chen",
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Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil : Effects of reaction temperature and aqueous phase recirculation. / Zhu, Zhe ; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib; Yu, Donghong; Chen, Guanyi.

In: Applied Energy, Vol. 137, 01.2015, p. 183–192.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

T2 - Effects of reaction temperature and aqueous phase recirculation

AU - Zhu, Zhe

AU - Rosendahl, Lasse

AU - Toor, Saqib

AU - Yu, Donghong

AU - Chen, Guanyi

PY - 2015/1

Y1 - 2015/1

N2 - Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio-crude oil production. Results showed that low temperature favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 34.9 wt% at 300 C. Contrarily, at high temperature, the bio-crude oil had better qualities in terms of less oxygen content and higher heating values (HHVs). The compounds identified in bio-crude oil were mainly phenolics, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols, among which the relative contents of phenolics and carboxylic acids decreased with increasing temperature. In the recirculation studies, bio-crude yield was enhanced gradually with aqueous phase addition at 300 C, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase.

AB - Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio-crude oil production. Results showed that low temperature favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 34.9 wt% at 300 C. Contrarily, at high temperature, the bio-crude oil had better qualities in terms of less oxygen content and higher heating values (HHVs). The compounds identified in bio-crude oil were mainly phenolics, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols, among which the relative contents of phenolics and carboxylic acids decreased with increasing temperature. In the recirculation studies, bio-crude yield was enhanced gradually with aqueous phase addition at 300 C, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase.

KW - Hydrothermal liquefaction

KW - Barley straw

KW - Bio-crude oil

KW - Aqueous phase

KW - Recirculation

U2 - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.005

DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.005

M3 - Journal article

VL - 137

SP - 183

EP - 192

JO - Applied Energy

JF - Applied Energy

SN - 0306-2619

ER -