Implementation of the S100 Calcium-Binding Protein B Biomarker in a Clinical Setting: A Retrospective Study of Benefits, Safety, and Effectiveness

Johannes Bech Steinmüller, Nikoline Møller Lynnerup, Jacob Steinmetz, Jens Jakob Riis, Peter Doering*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
28 Downloads (Pure)


Recent years have seen the emergence of the S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) biomarker used in the initial management of minor traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. S100B has been found to reduce cerebral computed tomography (CT-C) scans and was recently implemented in the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) guidelines. In a clinical setup, we retrospectively investigated the use of the S100B biomarker in relation to the SNC guidelines in the respective year before and after implementation. Accordingly, minor TBI patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision diagnostic code of S06.0 commotio cerebri were included in 2018 (n = 786) and 2019 (n = 709) for comparison of emergency department time (EDT) and CT-Cs. In 2019, we included all patients with an S100B sample (n = 547; 348/199 male:female; median age, 52 years). We found an S100B sensitivity of 92% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99% (cutoff, 0.10 μg/L) regardless of SNC guideline compliance. With strict SNC guideline management, sensitivity and NPV increased to 100%, even at a 0.20-μg/L cutoff that increased the specificity from 49% to 76%. After S100B implementation, we found the median EDT to significantly increase from 196 min (interquartile range [IQR] = 127-289) in 2018 to 216 min (IQR = 134.0-309.5) in 2019 (p = 0.0148), which may have resulted from poor guideline compliance (53.9%). Contrarily, the proportion of CT-C scanned patients decreased from 70% to 56.3% equal to a relative 27.5% decrease of scanned patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusively, our study supported the safe and efficient clinical use of the S100B biomarker, albeit with a minor EDT increase. S100B combination with the SNC guidelines improved clinical potential.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeurotrauma reports
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)447-455
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 17 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

© Johannes Bech Steinmüller et al., 2022; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


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