Influence of the Experimental Protocol and the Optimization Method on the Noninvasive Estimation of Knee Ligaments Properties

Ilias Theodorakos*, Mickael Skipper Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review


Subject-specific ligament properties can be obtained by combining optimization procedures with experimental data and musculoskeletal modeling. These properties are computed by minimizing the difference between experimental laxity measurements and the respective simulations from subject-specific models. Different levels of agreement between experimental and simulated laxity have been reported due to the model complexity and the employed experimental protocol, and possibly the kind of the employed optimization method. However, how experimental and optimization choices affect the ligament properties estimations remains unknown, possibly due to lack of ground truth values. Therefore, this study investigates whether experimental protocols and optimization methods influence the properties estimations, using a computationally generated dataset free of experimental errors and inaccuracies. Initially, an experimental data set was generated by employing a subject-specific knee computational model, ground truth ligament properties and laxity tests simulations. Subsequently, ligament properties were estimated using the same computational model and combinations two laxity protocols and two optimization methods. The direct optimization method provided more accurate estimations of ligament parameters compared to simulated annealing while the addition of anterior posterior laxity tests to varus/valgus and internal/external rotation ones did not change the accuracy. Future research should provide the optimal combination of optimization method and laxity measurements that would enable noninvasive, in vivo estimations of knee ligament properties.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Digital Human Modeling : Proceedings of the 8th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, 4-6 September 2023, Antwerp, Belgium
EditorsSofia Scataglini, Wim Saeys, Steven Truijen, Gregor Harih
Number of pages10
Publication date2023
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-37850-8
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-37848-5
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventProceedings of the 8th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium - Antwerp, Belgium
Duration: 4 Sept 20236 Sept 2023


ConferenceProceedings of the 8th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium
SeriesLecture Notes in Networks and Systems
Volume744 LNNS

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Knee joint
  • laxity
  • ligament properties
  • musculoskeletal modeling
  • optimization


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