In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy comfort needs, architects could pursue unrestricted designs without making comfort part of the architectural design.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationAalborg
PublisherDepartment of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University
Number of pages40
Publication statusPublished - 2007
SeriesDCE Lecture notes


  • HVAC System
  • Artificial Lightning
  • Lightning
  • Indoor Comfort
  • Comfort

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