Power systems are currently experiencing a transition towards decarbonisation of electrical generation through large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources. These are gradually replacing conventional thermal power plants which today are the main providers of black start (BS) services. Consequently, in case of a total/partial blackout, conventional black-start resources are not ready for operation. Offshore wind farms (OWFs), with their large capacity and fast controllers, have potential as novel BS units. This new service introduces a need for a new design for wind power systems to be able to fulfil the black start requirements for non-traditional generation units. In this paper, challenges, and possible solutions in integrating BS services into OWFs will be presented. A first challenge is represented by the implementation of a BS unit. The BS unit should be capable of firstly forming the wind farm power island and withstanding transient phenomena due to energisation. There could be several different solutions, e.g., the integration of grid-forming converters in the wind farm design which could be battery energy storage systems (BESSs). In this paper, specific challenges are analysed using simulations on a wind farm equipped with a grid-forming BESS, and the proposed solutions discussed. It can be concluded that a hybrid system comprised of a BESS and an OWF, in combination with novel technologies such as grid-forming control, soft-charging, etc. represents a feasible proposal for being able to provide BS services with OWFs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIET Renewable Power Generation
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Publication statusSubmitted - 2021

Bibliographical note

Extension of the conference paper "Challenges and Solutions in Integrating Black Start into Offshore Wind Farms", presented at the Wind Integration Workshop 2020.


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