LCA benchmarks for residential buildings in Northern Italy and Denmark - Learnings from comparing two different contexts

Freja Nygaard Rasmussen*, Sara Ganassali, Regitze Kjær Zimmermann, Monica Lavagna, Andrea Campioli, Harpa Birgisdottir

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study provides LCA reference benchmarks for residential buildings in Northern Italy and
Denmark. Furthermore, the benchmark derivation process is analysed to highlight the trade-offs
that relate to the methodological choices made by benchmark developers, considering the
objectives of the stakeholders. Reference benchmarks for the two contexts are calculated based
on national samples of residential buildings. A comparative analysis pinpoints the
methodological factors regarding system boundaries, inventory requirements and databases
that, from a calculation aspect, affect the benchmarks. Results thus highlight the uniqueness of
each benchmarking system put into practice, and emphasize the need for clear calculation rules
and transparency within each benchmark system. The identified trade-offs from the derivation
process furthermore indicate the inherent need to balance the different interests relating to the
stakeholders’ roles when applying the benchmark. The mapping of different trade-offs presented
in this study provides benchmark stakeholders with an overview that allows for open discussion
about which priorities and choices will fit a specific context of benchmark application.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBuilding Research and Information
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)833-849
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2019


  • LCA practice
  • Life cycle assessment
  • benchmarking
  • embodied impacts
  • residential buildings
  • trade-offs


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