### Abstract

Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase,

methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate system models from data in the form of observations of the target system. Common for these approaches is that they assume the data to consist of multiple independent observation sequences. However, for certain types of systems, in particular many running embedded systems, one would only have access to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model.

methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate system models from data in the form of observations of the target system. Common for these approaches is that they assume the data to consist of multiple independent observation sequences. However, for certain types of systems, in particular many running embedded systems, one would only have access to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | NASA Formal Methods : 4th International Symposium, NFM 2012, Norfolk, VA, USA, April 3-5, 2012. Proceedings |

Editors | Alwyn E. Goodloe, Suzette Person |

Number of pages | 15 |

Publisher | Springer |

Publication date | 2012 |

Pages | 216-230 |

ISBN (Print) | 978-3-642-28890-6 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 978-3-642-28891-3 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2012 |

Event | NASA Formal Methods Symposium - Norfolk, United States Duration: 3 Apr 2011 → 5 Apr 2012 Conference number: 4 |

### Conference

Conference | NASA Formal Methods Symposium |
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Number | 4 |

Country | United States |

City | Norfolk |

Period | 03/04/2011 → 05/04/2012 |

Series | Lecture Notes in Computer Science |
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Volume | 7226 |

ISSN | 0302-9743 |

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### Cite this

Chen, Y., Mao, H., Jaeger, M., Nielsen, T. D., Larsen, K. G., & Nielsen, B. (2012). Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors. In A. E. Goodloe, & S. Person (Eds.),

*NASA Formal Methods: 4th International Symposium, NFM 2012, Norfolk, VA, USA, April 3-5, 2012. Proceedings*(pp. 216-230). Springer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol.. 7226 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28891-3_22