Lithium-Ion Battery Operation, Degradation, and Aging Mechanism in Electric Vehicles: An Overview

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Understanding the aging mechanism for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) is crucial for optimizing the battery operation in real-life applications. This article gives a systematic description of the LiBs aging in real-life electric vehicle (EV) applications. First, the characteristics of the common EVs and the lithium-ion chemistries used in these applications are described. The battery operation in EVs is then classified into three modes: charging, standby, and driving, which are subsequently described. Finally, the aging behavior of LiBs in the actual charging, standby, and driving modes are reviewed, and the influence of different working conditions are considered. The degradation mechanisms of cathode, electrolyte, and anode during those processes are also discussed. Thus, a systematic analysis of the aging mechanisms of LiBs in real-life EV applications is achieved, providing practical guidance, methods to prolong the battery life for users, battery designers, vehicle manufacturers, and material recovery companies
Original languageEnglish
Article number5220
Issue number17
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2021


  • lithium-ion battery
  • electric vehciles
  • aging mechanisms
  • battery degradation
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Aging mechanism
  • Electric vehicles
  • Battery degradation


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