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Motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCI) have been proposed as a means for stroke rehabilitation, which combined with virtual reality allows for introducing game-based interactions into rehabilitation. However, the control of the MI-BCI may be difficult to obtain and users may face poor performance which frustrates them and potentially affects their motivation to use the technology. Decreases in motivation could be reduced by increasing the users' sense of agency over the system. The aim of this study was to understand whether embodiment (ownership) of a hand depicted in virtual reality can enhance the sense of agency to reduce frustration in an MI-BCI task. Twenty-two healthy participants participated in a within-subject study where their sense of agency was compared in two different embodiment experiences: 1) avatar hand (with body), or 2) abstract blocks. Both representations closed with a similar motion for spatial congruency and popped a balloon as a result. The hand/blocks were controlled through an online MI-BCI. Each condition consisted of 30 trials of MI-activation of the avatar hand/blocks. After each condition a questionnaire probed the participants' sense of agency, ownership, and frustration. Afterwards, a semi-structured interview was performed where the participants elaborated on their ratings. Both conditions supported similar levels of MI-BCI performance. A significant correlation between ownership and agency was observed ( r = 0.47, p = 0.001). As intended, the avatar hand yielded much higher ownership than the blocks. When controlling for performance, ownership increased sense of agency. In conclusion, designers of BCI-based rehabilitation applications can draw on anthropomorphic avatars for the visual mapping of the trained limb to improve ownership. While not While not reducing frustration ownership can improve perceived agency given sufficient BCI performance. In future studies the findings should be validated in stroke patients since they may perceive agency and ownership differently than able-bodied users.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2021 Ziadeh, Gulyas, Nielsen, Lehmann, Nielsen, Kjeldsen, Hougaard, Jochumsen and Knoche.
- brain-computer interface (BCI)
- interaction paradigm
- virtual reality
FingerprintDive into the research topics of '”Mine works better” - Examining the influence of embodiment in virtual reality on the sense of agency during a binary motor imagery task with a brain-computer interface'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
- 1 Guest lecturers
Effect of Continuous and Discrete Feedback on Agency and Frustration in a Brain-Computer Interface Virtual Reality Interaction.Kjeldsen, T. K. K., Nielsen, T. B., Ziadeh, H., Lehmann, S., Nielsen, L. D., Gulyás, D., Hougaard, B. I., Knoche, H. & Jochumsen, M. R., 15 Dec 2021, 2021 IEEE 21st International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE). IEEE, p. 1-5 5 p. 9635586. (International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering).
Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceeding › Article in proceeding › Research › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile
How can we help? Towards a design framework for performance-accommodation mechanisms for users struggling with inputRossau, I. G., Bugge Skammelsen, R., Czapla, J., Hougaard, B. I., Knoche, H. & Jochumsen, M. R., 18 Oct 2021, CHI PLAY 2021 - Extended Abstracts of the 2021 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, p. 10-16 7 p.
Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceeding › Article in proceeding › Research › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile14 Downloads (Pure)
Who willed it? Decreasing Frustration by Manipulating Perceived Control through Fabricated Input for Stroke Rehabilitation BCI GamesHougaard, B. I., Rossau, I. G., Czapla, J. J., Miko, M. A., Bugge Skammelsen, R., Knoche, H. & Jochumsen, M., Sep 2021, In: Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction. 5, p. 1-19 19 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Conference article in Journal › Research › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile