Mm-Wave Beam-Steerable Endfire Array Embedded in a Slotted Metal-Frame LTE Antenna

Rocio Rodriguez Cano, Shuai Zhang*, Kun Zhao, Gert Frølund Pedersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)
157 Downloads (Pure)


In this article, a new principle to overcome the blockage of metallic frames in mobile terminals to endfire millimeter-wave (mm-wave) arrays is proposed. The obstruction is solved by etching several slots in the top part of the frame. It is shown that the slots in the handset frame can further enhance the beam-steering gain of a mm-wave bow-tie array. A very small array-frame distance can also be realized without degrading much the array performance. Several considerations in the slot design are assessed first. A prototype of the PCB and frame has been built and the results show that the array is matched in the desired frequency bands of 24.25-27.5 and 27.5-28.35 GHz. The mm-wave array can scan 80° in the endfire direction, and the realized gain obtained is higher than 7 dBi in the operating frequency bands. At the same time, the frame performs as a sub-3 GHz dual-loop antenna. The covered bands are 760-980 and 1240-2870 MHz.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8954948
JournalI E E E Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)3685-3694
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • 5G mobile communication
  • beam-steering
  • endfire
  • handset antennas
  • millimeter wave
  • phased array
  • slot antenna


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