Modeling all alternative solutions for highly renewable energy systems

Tim Pedersen*, Marta Victoria, Morten Grud Rasmussen, Gorm Bruun Andresen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
222 Downloads (Pure)


As the world is transitioning towards highly renewable energy systems, advanced tools are needed to analyze the complex energy networks. Energy system design is, however, challenged by real-world objective functions consisting of a blurry mix of technical and socioeconomic agendas, with limitations that cannot always be clearly stated. As a result, economically suboptimal solutions will likely be preferable. Here, a method capable of determining the continuum containing all economically near-optimal solutions is presented, moving the field of energy system modeling from discrete solutions to a new era where continuous solution ranges are available. The proposed method is applied to study a range of technical and socioeconomic metrics on a model of the European electricity system. The near-optimal region is found to be relatively flat allowing for solutions that are slightly more expensive than the optimum but better in terms of equality, land use, and implementation time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121294
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Decarbonization
  • Energy system optimization models
  • Flexibility
  • Land-use
  • Modeling to generate alternatives
  • Renewable energy
  • Self-sufficiency
  • Transmission
  • Uncertainty analysis


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