The effectiveness of natural ventilation, i.e. its ability to ensure indoor air quality and passive cooling in a building, depends greatly on the design process. Mechanical ventilation systems can be designed separately from the design of the building in which they are installed. They can also be installed in existing buildings after a few modifications. In contrast, ventilation systems using only natural forces such as wind and thermal buoyancy need to be designed together with the building, since the building itself and its components are the elements that can reduce or increase air movement as
well as influence the air content (dust, pollution etc.). Architects and engineers need to acquire qualitative and quantitative information about the interactions between building characteristics and natural ventilation in order to design buildings and systems consistent with a passive low-energy approach.

These lecture notes focus on modelling of natural and hybrid ventilation driven by thermal buoyancy, wind and/or mechanical driving forces for a single zone with one, two or several openings.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationAalborg
PublisherDepartment of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University
Number of pages54
Publication statusPublished - 2006
SeriesDCE Lecture notes


  • Natural Ventilation
  • Hybrid Ventilation
  • Air Quality
  • Air Humidity
  • Air Flow
  • Infiltration

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