“More2Eat” in patients at nutritional risk during hospital stay lowers the risk of three-month mortality

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Abstract

Background & aims
Malnutrition is a common problem among hospitalized patients due to increased nutrient requirements and reduced food intake or uptake of nutrients. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association of nutritional risk status (at or not at risk by NRS-2002) as well as energy and protein intake, use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and snack meals in at risk patients during hospitalization and adverse outcomes (length of stay (LOS), readmissions and mortality) at three-months follow-up.

Methods
Data were collected at baseline and at three-months follow-up in patients hospitalized at 31 units at a Danish University Hospital. Diet records were performed at baseline by using the nurses' quartile nutrition recording methods. Data about disease and clinical outcomes were collected from electronic medical records at baseline and three-months follow-up.

Results
A total of 318 patients were included. Patients at nutritional risk (n = 149, 47%) had higher risk of longer LOS (≥20 days (OR = 4.24 [1.81;9.95] and ≥30 days OR = 2.50 [1.22;5.14])), having one readmission (OR = 1.86 [1.15;3.01]) and death (OR = 2.56 [1.27;5.20]) compared to patients not at nutritional risk (n = 169, 53%). A longer LOS was associated with patients who achieved ≥75% of energy and protein requirements, consumed snack meals incl. and excl. oral nutritional supplements. Readmissions in patients at nutritional risk during the three-months were not associated with food intake during the index hospitalization. Mortality was observed in 43 of the 318 (13.5%) hospitalized patients. A lower mortality was associated with increased energy and protein intake in patients at nutritional risk.

Conclusions
The results of this study indicate a longer LOS, higher readmission rate and increased mortality in patients at nutritional risk compared to patients not at risk. Patients at nutritional risk had lower risk of three-month mortality and longer LOS during index hospitalization with increased energy and protein intake. Readmissions in patients at nutritional risk were not affected by food intake. The association of nutritional risk with poorer outcomes indicates that good nutritional care including constant attention to food-intake during hospitalization can be beneficial regarding mortality.
Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Nutrition ESPEN
Volume57
Pages (from-to)29-38
Number of pages10
ISSN2405-4577
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors

Keywords

  • Food intake
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Malnutrition
  • Mortality
  • Protein intake
  • Readmission

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